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Full text of "The cephalopods of the north-eastern coast of America"

THE CEPHALOPODS OF THE NORTH-EASTERN 
COAST OF AMERICA. 



PART II. 

The smaller Cephalopods, including the Squids 

AND the OcTOPI, WITH OTHER 

Allied Forms. 
By a. E. VERRILL. 



[From the TRANSiCTioNS of the Connecticut Academy of Sciences, Vol. V.J 



New Haven, Conn., June, 1880-December, 1881. 






The Cephalopods of the Northeastern Coast of America. 
By a, E. Verrill. 

Part II, the smaller cephalopods, including the " squids" and 
the octopi, with other allied forms. 

Before proceeding with the sjjecial subjects of this Part it seems 
desirable to describe in detail an important, though young and small, 
example of one of the gigantic species of Architeuthis, as a supple- 
ment to the first part of this article. 

Description of a young example of Architeuthis Harveyi. 
Plates XXVI and XXXVIII. 

This specimen, which I have designated as No. 24, was received 
subsequent to the publication of the previous part of this article. 
It was found, dead and mutilated, floating at the surface, at the 
Grand Bank of Newfoundland, April, 1880, by Capt. O. A. Whitten and 
crew of the schooner " Wra. H. Oakes," and by them it was well pre- 
served and presented to the U. S. Commission of P^ish and Fisheries. 
It is of great interest because it furnishes the means of completing 
the description of parts that were lacking or badly preserved in the 
larger specimens, especially the sessile arms and the buccal mem- 
branes. 

The specimen consists of a part of the head with all the arms 
attached, and with the suckers in a good state of preservation on all 
the arms, though the tips of all the short arms, except one, are 
destroyed, and all of the arms are more or less injured on their outer 
surfaces. The jaws and buccal membranes are intact, with the odon- 
tophore and oesophagus. Parts of the cartilaginous skull, with some 
of the ganglia and the collapsed eyes are present, but the external 
surface of the head is gone and the eyelids are badly mutilated. No 
part of the body was pi'cserved. The tentacular-arms are in good 
preservation, with all the suckers present. TJnfoi-tunately the distal 
portions of both the ventral arms had been destroyed, so that the 
sex cannot be determined. The color of the head, so far as pre- 
served, and of the external surfaces of the sessile arms is much like 
that of the common squids, — a rather dark purplish brown, due to 
minute crowded specks of that color, thickly distributed, with a pink- 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 32 June, 1880. 



260 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

ish white ground-color between them. TJie outer buccal membrane is 
darker ; the inner surfaces of the arms are whitisli ; the peduncular 
portions of the tentacular arms have fewer color-specks, and are paler 
than the other arms. 

Reprodxiction of lost parts. 
This creature had been badly mutilated long before its death, as 
its healed wounds show, and to this fact many of the imperfections 
of the specimen are due. At the time of its death, or subsequently, 
the extremities of the ventral arms and of the third right arm appear 
to have been destroyed, besides other injuries. But both the dorsal 
arms and both the lateral arms of the left side had previously been 
truncated at 12 to 13 inches from their bases. The ends had not 
only healed up entirely, but each one had apparently commenced to 
reproduce the lost portion. The reproduced part consists, in each 
case, of an elongated, acute, soft papilla, arising from the otherwise 
obtuse end of the arm. At its base one or two small suckers have 
already been reproduced, and minute rudiments of others can be 
detected on some of them. Whether these arms would have been 
perfectly restored in course of time is, perhaps, doubtful,* but there 
can be no doubt that a partial restoration would, at least, have been 
effected. On the basal half of several of the arms some of the 
suckers had also been previously lost, and these were all in the pro- 
cess of restoration. The restored suckers were mostly less than one 
half the diameter of those adjacent, and in some cases less than one- 
third. Among the restored suckers were some malformations. One 
has a double aperture, with a double horny rim. In one case two 
small suckers, with pedicels in close contact, occupy the place of a 
single sucker. In another instance a small pedicelled sucker arises 
from the pedicel of a larger one, near its base. 

Tlie arms and suckers. 
With the exception of the left arm of the second pair, none of the 
sessile arras have their tips perfect. Therefore it is not possible to 
give their relative lengths. The dorsal arms are the smallest at base 
and the third pair largest. They are all provided with a rather nar- 
row marginal membrane along each border of the front side. These 
membranes are scarcely wide enough to i-each to the level of the rims 
of the suckers, though they may have done so in life. The front 
margin, bearing the suckers is narrow on all the arms, but relatively 

* That mutilations of the arms in species of Octopus are regularly restored is well- 
known, but it has been doubted whether this occurs in the ten-armed forms. 



A. M Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 261 

wider on the ventrals than on any of the others. Each sucker-pedi- 
cel arises from a muscular cushion, that is slightly raised and rounded 
on the inner side ; these, alternating on the two sides, leave a zigzag 
depression along the middle of the arm ; from each of these cushions 
two thickened muscular ridges run outward to the edge of the lateral 
membranes, one on each side of the pedicels of the suckers. These 
transverse muscular ridges give a scolloped outline to the margin of 
the membranes. These marginal merabi'anes are narrowest and the 
suckers are smallest on the ventral arms. The dorsal and lateral 
arms are strongly compressed laterally, but slightly swollen or con- 
vex in the middle, and narrowed externally to a carina, which is 
most prominent along the middle of the arms, and most conspicuous 
on the third pair of arms. The dorsal arms are rather more slender 
than the second pair, and were probably somewhat shorter. 

The left ai-m of the second pair has the tip preserved, with all its 
suckers present. On this arm there are 330 suckers, in all. The total 
length of the arm is 26*25 inches. The first 50 suckei'S extend to 
12*25 inches from the base ; the next 50 occupy 4-5 inches ; the next 
50 cover 3*5 ; the next 100 occupy 4*25 inches; the last 80 occupy 
1*'75 inches. This arm is "80 of an inch in transverse diameter, near the 
base ; 1*20 inches from front to back ; breadth of its front or sucker- 
bearing surface (without the lateral membranes), is, where widest, 
near the base of the arm, '50 of an inch ; the width gradually 
decreases, to *18 of an inch at 20 inches from the base ; beyond this 
the arm tapers to a very slender tip, with numerous small crowded 
suckers in two regular rows. At the base (Plate XXVI, fig. 4) 
there is first one very small sucker ; this is succeeded by two or three 
much larger ones, increasing a little in size ; beyond these are the 
largest suckers, extending to about the 25th, beyond which they 
gradually change their form and regularly diminish in size to the 
tips. The larger proximal suckers, up to the 25th to 30th, are rela- 
tively broader than those beyond, and have a wider and more open 
aperture, and a more even and less oblique horny ring, which is 
sharply denticulate aroimd the entire circumference, with the denti- 
cles rather smaller on the inner than on the outer margin, but similar 
in form. These are about "31 of an inch in external diameter. They 
show a gradual transition to those with more oblique rims and 
smaller apertures. Beyond the 30th, the horny rims become de- 
cidedly more oblique and one-sided, with the denticles nearly or quite 
abortive on the inner side, and larger and more incurved on the outer 
margin, while the aperture becomes more contracted and oblique. 



262 A. M Verrill — North American Gephalopods. 

At first there are 8 to 10 denticles on the outer margin, but these 
diminish in number as the suckers diminish in size, till at about 6 
inches from the tip there are mostly but two or three, and the aper- 
ture is very contracted. Still nearer the tip there are but two, blunt 
ones ; then these become reduced to a single bilobed one ; and finally 
only one, which is squarish, appears in the minute suckers of tlie last 
two inches of the tip. The first two or three suckers at the base of 
the arm are more feebly denticulated than those beyond, with smaller 
apertures. 

On many of the suckers (Plate XXXVIII, fig. 3) there are still 
remaining, in more or less complete preservation, a circle of minute 
horny plates arranged radially, or transversely, on the edge of the mem- 
brane around the aperture, similar in arrangement to those already 
described in the former part of this article (p. 230) on the suckei-s of 
Sthenoteuthis jyteroptis (Plate XXXVI, fig. 9). They are less devel- 
oped, however, than in that species, being thinner and more delicate, 
nor do their ends appear to turn up in the form of hooks. They 
seem to be generally very thin, oblong, scale-like structures, with 
rounded or blunt ends and slightly thickened margins. These struc- 
tures will probably be found to vary with age, and perhaps with the 
season. They appear to be easily desiduous, and are often absent in 
preserved sjjecimens. 

On the dorsal and third pairs of arms the suckers have essentially 
the same arrangement, form and structure, and on these three pairs 
of arms the larger suckers differ but slightly in size. The character 
and arrangement of the suckers on the distal portion of these arms is 
well shown on Plate XXVI, figs. 3, 3«, which represent a portion of 
one of the third pair of arms, commencing at the 67th sucker. 

The ventral arms are trapezoidal in section, at base, and rather 
stout. Breadth of front surface, near the base, exclusive of mem- 
branes, -55 ; transverse diameter, -95 ; front to back, 1*25 inches. The 
sucker-bearing surface is, therefore, broader than in the other arms. 
The suckers are, however, distinctly smaller and the proximal ones 
are different in form from the corresponding ones on the other arms. 
They are narrower and deeper, with more oblique and more con- 
tracted apertures, more oblique horny rims, which are denticulated 
on the outer margins only. On the larger ones there are 12 to 15 
sharp incurved denticles. In fact, the proximal suckers on the ventral 
arms agree better with the middle suckers, beyond the 30th, on the 
other arms, for there are none having wide open apertures, sur- 
rounded by nearly even horny rims, denticulated all around. The 



A. E. Verrill — North American C&phalopods. 



263 



Young Architeiithis Harveyi. 3Ieasurements of arms (in inches). 



Dorsal pair. 
Breadth of front, excluding membranes, . 

Breadth of lateral membranes, 

Diameter, transversely, 

Diameter from front to back, _. 

Second i^air. 

Total length, 

Breadth of front, 

Breadth or membranes, 

Diameter, transversely, .. 

Diameter, front to back, 

Third pair. 

Breadth of front, 

Breadth of membranes, ._ -.. 

Diameter, transversely, 

Diameter, front to back, 



Fourth p)air. 

Breadth of front, 

Breadth of membranes, 

Diameter, transversely, 

Diameter, front to back, 



Tentacular-arms. 

Total length, 

Base to expansion of club, 

Diameter of slender portion, 

Length of club, 

Length of part occupied by 24 largest suckers,.. 
Length of part occupied by small distal suckers,. 

Greatest breadth of club, 

Diameter, front to back, . 



26-25 



67- 

58-15 

-4-- 6 

8-25 

4-25 



2 60 
•VO 
•60 



Near 
base. 



•35 

-20 

•75 

1-05 



40 



•40 

'20 

•98 

1-40 



At 
Sin. 



■50 
-30 
-60 
•90 



At 
10 in. 



-30 
-20 
-40 

•70 



•35 
•15 
•35 

•85 

•40 

•15 

•40 

1^20 

•30 
•10 



At 
15 in. 



At 
20 in. 



•18 



•16 
•40 



Sessile arms, from base to particular suckers. 





To 
25th. 


TO 
50th. 


To 
100th. 


To 
150th. 


To 
200th. 


To 
250th. 


To 
300th. 


To 

tip. 


Dorsal pair, base to suckers, 

Second pair, base lo suckers, 

Third pair, base to suckers, 

Fourth pair, base to suckers, 


7^5 
7^75 
7^25 
6^25 


12-25 
12-25 
12-25 
10- 


16-75 
16-50 


20^'25 

20^75 


22^90 


24^50 


25^75 


26^25 



Measurments of suckers of sessile arms (in inches). 





4^ 


o 




ji 


On 1st pair of arms, external diameter, .. 

On 1 st pair of arms, aperture diameter, 

On 2d pair of arms, external diameter, 

On 2d pair of arms, aperture diameter, 

On 3d pair of arms, external diameter, . 

On 3d pair of arms, aperture diameter, 

On 4th pair of arms, external diameter 

On 4th pair of arms, aperture diameter, 


•31 
•25 
•31 
•25 
-31 
-22 
•25 
•15 


•24 
•15 
•27 
•18 
•28 
•18 
■21 
•11 


•16 
•10 
•20 
•11 
•22 
•12 
•16 
•10 


•15 
-08 

•14 
•07 



264 A. E. Yerrill — North American Gephalopods. 

suckers diminish regularly in size, and in the number of denticles, 
till at the 200th (whei'e the arms are broken off) there are biit three 
denticles. 

! 
Tentacular-arms. 

Plate XXVI, fig. 2. 

The tentacular-arms are both entire, with all the suckers well pre- 
served. The total length is 65 and 67 inches respectively ; length of 
the expanded portion or club, 8*25 inches; diameter of the peduncu- 
lar portion varies from '40 to '70 of an inch ; at the base, '90 ; breadth 
of the proximal part of the club, where it is broadest, '70 ; diameter 
from front to back, '60; external diameter of the largest suckers, 
"6b of an inch; height of their cups, '28; of lateral suckers, 'IS; of 
the largest marginal suckers on the distal portion, "14. 

The peduncular portion is somewhat thickened and rounded at the 
base, but through most of its length it is slender, varying in size, and 
nearly triangular in section, with the corners rounded, each side 
measuring, where largest, '60 of an inch in breadth. At about a foot 
from the base the small smooth-rimmed suckers and their opposing 
tubercles begin to appear on the inner surface. At first these are 
placed singly and at considerable intervals (2*5 to 3*5 inches), each 
sucker alternating with a tubercle on each arm ; further out they 
are nearer together, and towards the club they alternate, two by two, 
on each arm ; near the commencement of the club they become more 
numerous and ai'e arranged somewhat in two rows ; just at the 
commencement of the club they become more crowded, forming 
three and then four oblique transverse rows of suckers, with the same 
number of tubercles alongside of them ; on the basal expansion 
of the club, which is its thickest portion, these suckers and tubercles 
become very numerous, covering nearly the whole inner surface, form- 
ino- rather crowded and irregular oblique rows of six or more. These 
smooth-rimmed suckers are followed by an irregular group of about 
twenty, somewhat larger, denticulated suckers, occupying the entire 
breadth for a very short distance. Then follow the two median 
rows of large suckers, alternating with a row of marginal ones, of 
about half their size, on each side. The first three or four large 
suckers of each row gradually increase in size ; then follow six to 
eight nearly equal ones of the largest size ; these are followed by 
two to four distal ones, decreasing in size. In one of the rows there 
are fourteen that distinctly belong to the large series ; in the other 
row there are twelve. The distal section of the club is occupied by 



A. E. Verrill — North American Gephalopods. 265 

four regular rows of small denticulated suckers, more strongly 
toothed on the outer margins, and similar in form to the marginal 
suckers of the middle region. Of these the two rows next tlie upper (?) 
maro-in are decidedly larger than those of the two lower (?) rows. 
Close to the tip there is a group of about a dozen minute suckers, 
with smooth even rims. The middle portion of the club is bordered 
on each side by a rather broad, thin scalloped membrane. The distal 
section has a broad keel on the outer margin. 

Suckers of tentacular-arms. 

Diameter of largest, - '35 

Height of largest, '28 

Diameter of lateral, '18 

Height of lateral, -09 

Diameter of smooth-rimmed ones, - '10 

Diameter of tubercles, - '08 

Of largest lateral ones of distal section, -- 'l-i 

Of median lateral ones of distal section, '11 

Buccal membranes and jaws. 
Plate XXVI, fig. 1. 

This specimen fortunately had the buccal membranes and other 
parts about the mouth perfectly preserved, which has not been the 
case in the large specimens. The outer buccal membrane is broad 
and thin, rather deeply colored externally. Its margin extends into 
seven acute angles — one of which is opposite each of the lateral 
and ventral arms, but on the dorsal side there is only one, which 
corresponds to the interval between the two dorsal arms. From each 
of these angles a membrane runs to, and for a short distance along 
the side of the opposite arm, except from the dorsal one, which sends 
off a membrane which divides, one part going to the inner lateral 
surface of each dorsal arm. The membranes from the upper lateral 
and ventral angles join the upper lateral sides of their corresponding 
arms; those from the lower lateral angles go to the lower lateral 
sides of the third pair of arms. The inner surface of the buccal 
membrane is whitish and deeply and irregularly reticulated by con- 
spicuous, soft, wrinkles and furrows, which become somewhat con- 
centric toward the margin. Beneath this membrane are openings to 
the aquiferous cavities. The inner buccal membrane, immediately 
surrounding the beak, is whitish, thickened at the margin, and 
strongly irregularly wrinkled and puckered. 

The jaws have sharp, dark brown tips, changing to clear brown 
backward, with the laminoe very thin, transparent, and whitish. The 



266 A. E. Verrill — North Atnerican Cephalopods. 

upper mandible has the rostrum regularly curved, with a distinct 
ridge, in continuation with its inner edges, extending down the sides, 
and only a slight notch at its base. 

The lower mandible has a notch close to the tip, with the rest of 
the inner edge nearly straight; at the base is a rather large and wide 
V-shaped notch ; the tooth beyond it being broad-triangular and 
rather large ; beyond the tooth the aloe are white, soft and cartil- 
aginous. 

Measurements of jaws (in inches). 

Transverse diameter of buccal mass, 1-50 

Vertical diameter of buccal mass, 1-70 

Upper Mandible: 

Tip to end of frontal lamina, 1-25 

Tip to notch, -37 

Tip to lateral border of lamina, .. -77 

Loiver Mandible : 

Tip to border of meutum, -45 

Tip to lateral border of alfe, _. -70 

Tip to inner end of alae, 1'02 

Tip to bottom of notch, "32 

Height of tooth, -06 

Notch to inner end of alae, ._ '80 

Mentum to inner end of alje, 1'20 

The portion of the oesophagus preserved is 14-75 inches long and 
about 'IS of an inch broad, in its flattened condition. 

The odontophore (Plate XXXVIII, figs. 1, 2) is amber-color, -18 of 
an inch broad. The tridentate median teeth have moderately long but 
not very acute points, of which the middle one is a little the longest. 
The inner lateral teeth are bidentate and somewhat broader and longer 
than the median ones; their outer denticle is well-developed, but 
considerably shorter than the inner one. The next to the outer 
lateral teeth are larger at base and much longer, simple, broad, 
tapering, flattened, slightly curved, acute at tip. They appear not 
to have the small lateral denticle observed on the corresponding- 
teeth of the adult Architeuthh (see Plate XVIa, figs. 1, 2). The 
outer lateral teeth are similar to the preceding, but rather larger and 
not quite so broad at base. The marginal plates are well-developed, 
thin, somewhat rhomboidal. 

The internal cavity of the ears is somewhat irregularly tliree-lobed, 
with several rounded papillae projecting inward from its sides, very 
much as in those of Ommastrephes. Each ear contained two irregular- 
shaped otoliths, one of which (Plate XXXVIIT, fig. 4) was much 
larger than the other, in each ear. 

The eyes were both burst, and most of their internal structure was 
destroyed. So far as preserved they closely agree with those of 



A. M Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 267 

Ommastrephes. The eye-balls were large and somewhat oblong in 
form, and appear to have been nearly two inches broad and three 
long. The eye-lids are badly mutilated, but the anterior sinus can 
be irapei-fectly made out. It seems to have been broad and rounded. 
The aquiferous cavities appear to have been like those of Omma- 
strephes. The form and structure of the cartilaginous ' brain-box ' 
also appear to be essentially the same as in the genus last named. 

Ommastrephes. 

Ommastrephes (2}ars)W0rbignj, Voy. Am. Merid., 1835; Cephal. Acetabulifers, p. 341, 

Body elongated, pointed posteriorly. Caudal fin broad, trans- 
versely rhomboidal. Pen narrowed behind the middle, with a strong 
median rib and large marginal ribs on each side ; near the posterior 
end thin and concave, expanded into a lanceolate form, with the tip 
infolded and slightly hooded. Head large. Eyes with lids, having 
a distinct sinus in front. 

Arms stout, the third pair stoutest, with a dorsal keel; all the 
arms have marginal membranes exterior to the suckers. Suckers of 
the arms deep and oblique, with horny rims which are strongly 
denticulate on the outer margin, the median tooth usually largest. 
Tentacular-arms rather long and contractile, stout, with a moderately 
wide terminal club, which has along its middle region two rows of 
large central suckers, and a row of smaller marginal ones alternating 
with them, on each side ; proximal part of club with small denticu- 
late suckers only ; distal part of club with four to eight rows of small 
denticulate suckers. 

Siphon-tube placed in a depression of the under side of the head, 
and attached to the head by a lateral bridle on each side, behind the 
eyes, and by a pair of bridles on its dorsal surface, at the bottom of 
the depression in which it is lodged. Terminal orifice transversely 
elliptical, furnished with an internal valve. 

Mantle-fastenings ('apparatus of resistance'), situated on the basal 
extension of the siphon, consist, on the ventral side, of two large 
triangular bosses, with an elongated and somewhat ear-shaped longi- 
tudinal fosse, and a shallower transverse one ; and on each side of the 
inner surface of the mantle, of a corresponding short, raised, longi- 
tudinal ridge, swollen posteriorly, and a lower transverse ridge, 
which fit closely into the fosses. The dorsal side of the head 
has a median, longitudinal facet, that fits upon its counterpart 
on the mantle, over the anterior part of the pen, which gives it 
support. 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 33 June, 1880. 



268 A. E. VerriU — North American Cephalopods. 

The nuchal lamellae are formed by a transverse tegumentary fold 
behind the eyes, from which run backward, on each side, three longi- 
tudinal lamella?, which are delicate, and have a sensory (perhaps 
olfactory) function. 

Buccal membrane seven-angled, thin, corrugated on the inner sur- 
face, destitute of suckers. 

Branchial auricles, and gills large. Liver and stomach voluminous. 

The male has one of the ventral arms (which may be either right 
or left in our species) hectocotylized near the tip, by enlargement 
and flattening of the bases of the sucker-stalks, while their cups 
become small or abortive. 

The female has oviducts developed on both sides, but they are 
small, and simple, opening far back. Two pairs of nidamental glands, 
which are small and simple. 

Ommastrephes illecebrosa VerriU. (Short-finned squid.) 

Loligo illecebrosa Lesueur, Journ. Phil. Acad. Nat. Sci., ii, p. 95, Plate 10, figs. 
18-21, 1821 (figures incorrect). 
Blainville, Diet, des Sci. nat., vol. xxvii, p. 142, 1823. 
Gould, Invert. Mass., ed. I, p. 318, 1841 (habits). 
Loligo piscatorum La Pylaie, Ann. des Sci. nat., iv, p. 319, 1825, PI. 16 (habits as 

observed at Saint Pierre). 
Ommastrephes sagittatm (pars) D'Orbig., Cephal. Acetab., p. 345, Plate 7, figs. 1-3 
(after Lesueur). 
Gray {2}ars), Catalogue Moll, of British Mus., Part I, Cephal. Antep., p. 58, 1849. 
Binney, in Gould's Invert. Mass., ed. II, p. 510, 1870 (excl. syn.), PI. 26, figs. 

341-4 [341 is imperfect],* not Plate 25, fig. 339. 
Tryon (pars), Man. Couch., I, p. 177, PI. 78, fig. 342 (very poor, after Lesueur), 
PI. 79, fig. 343, 1879 (not Plate 78, figs. 341, 345). 
Ovimastrephes illecebrosa VerriU, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. iii, p. 281, 1872 (synonymy); 
Report on Invert. Viney. Sd., etc., 1873, pp. 441 (habits), 634 (descr.) ; Amer. 
Jour. Science, vol. xix, p. 289, April, 1880. 

Plates XXVIII ; XXIX, figs. 5, 5a ; XXXVII, fig. 8 ; XXXIX. 

Body, in the younger specimens, long and slender; in the adults, 
especially when the stomach is distended with food, and in the 
breeding season, rather stout ; most so in the gravid female ; in pre- 
served specimens the apparent stoutness of the body depends very 
much upon whether the mantle was in a contracted or expanded 

* This species is not well figured in the last edition of Gould's Invertebrates. Plate 
25, fig. 339, which Mr. Binney refers to it, really represents a Loligo. Plate 26, figs. 
341-344 (erroneously referred to Loligopsis pavo), was doubtless made from a specimen 
of this species, but if so, the long arms were incorrectly drawn, and confused with 
the short arms. 



A. JEJ. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 269 

state when the animal died. Caxidal fin t]-ansversely rhoraboidal, 
or broad spear-shape, about one-third wider than long; its breadth 
usually less than half the length of the mantle; the posterior borders 
are nearly straight and form nearly a right angle at the posterior 
end ; the anterior mai'gins are somewhat convexly rounded, and the 
front margin extends, at the sides of the body, considerably forward 
beyond the insertion of the fin. Ratio of fin-length to mantle-length 
1:2*48 to 1:3*00 (the latter in the young ones). Average propor- 
tions in eight adult specimens : of fin-length (from insertion) to length 
of dorsal side of mantle, abotit 1 : 2*55 ; breadth of fin to length of 
mantle, average, 1 : 1*90; length of head (dorsal edge of mantle to 
base of arms) to mantle-length, average, 1 : 7*15. 

The head is large, well-rounded ; the exposed portion is shorter 
than broad, its breadth about equals that of the body, in ordinary 
contraction ; its sides, in the region of the eyes, are somewhat 
swollen; the under surface is flattened, and has a deep excavation 
in front, semi-circular, or rather semi-elliptical, in outline, to receive 
the dorsal half of the siphon-tube, which fits into it closely. 

The sides of the head, back of the eyes, have a rather prominent, 
transverse ridge, back of which the head suddenly narrows, to the 
neck. The transverse ridges curve backward slightly and meet on 
the dorsal side of the head, where they are less prominent. Three 
thin, lamelliform, erect folds of the skin extend backward from the 
transverse ridge, on each side of the head ; of these the middle or 
lateral one is about in line with the lower eye-lid ; the upper one is, 
at its origin, about midway between the latter and the median dorsal 
line, but its posterior edge bends downward and joins that of the one 
below; the lowest of the three is shorter and curves upward, and 
finally joins the middle one, at its posterior edge. These folds form, 
therefore, in connection with the transverse ridge, two well-defined 
lateral areas or facets, of delicate and probably very sensitive integu- 
ment, placed just in front of the mantle-opening, on each side, where 
they must be bathed by the inflowing currents of water. It seems 
probable to me, therefore, that they are the seat of a special sense, 
analogous to, if not identical with, that of smell. They are, also, 
closely connected with the organs of hearing, and may be of some 
service in concentrating soimd- vibrations. A small jDore is situated 
within the lower facet. 

The pupils are round and the eyes are large, though the opening 
between the lids is usually rather small, especially in alcoholic speci- 
mens. In these the aperture is usually contracted to a small obliquely 
transverse, irregular-triangular form, or even to a narrow oblique slit; 



270 A. E. Verrill — N'orth American Cephalopods. 

when more open the aperture is still usually somewhat angular; the 
anterior sinus is narrow and extends downward and forward. 

The eye-lids form, when nearly expanded, an iiTegular oval, the 
longest diameter placed transversely and somewhat obliquely, while 
the narrow and deep sinus extends forward and somewhat downward. 
When partly closed (Plate XXIX, fig, 5) the opening between the 
lids generally becomes more oblong and sometimes approaches a 
triangular form. 

The mantle is thick and very muscular ; its anterior margin has a 
concave outline beneath, forming a slightly prominent angle on each 
side ; from these angles it advances somewhat to the slight median 
dorsal angle, which projects forward but little, and does not fonn a 
distinct lobe, and sometimes it is hardly noticeable, even as an angle, 
the transverse outline of the edge on the dorsal side being, in that 
case, nearly straight, or advancing a very little in the middle. 

The sessile arms are rather stout, tapering to acute tips. The 
dorsal arms are a little smaller and shorter than the others; the 
second and third pairs are nearly equal in size and length, the second 
often a trifle the longer; those of the fourth pair are usually inter- 
mediate in length between the first and second pairs. 

All the sessile arms are stout and armed with similar suckers. 
Along their inner angles, outside the suckers, they are all similarly 
provided with marginal membranes, which rise to about the same 
height as the suckers, on each side. Just proximal to each sucker on the 
inner face of the arm, arises a thickened, transverse, muscular fold, that 
extends to the edge of the lateral membrane, which often recedes 
between their extremities, so as to have a scolloped outline. 

The dorsal arms are a little shorter and decidedly smaller than the 
others. The two lateral pairs of arms are stoutest and longest, and 
nearly equal, sometimes one pair and sometimes the other, being 
longest. The ventral arms are a little longer than the dorsal and 
shorter than the lateral ones. The dorsal and upper-lateral arms are 
trapezoidal in section, with the inner face rather broad. The dorsal 
arms have a slightly elevated, median dorsal fold, commencing near 
the base and running to the tip. Those of the second pair have a 
broader, membranous fold on the lower-outer angle, along the whole 
length. Those of the third pair are stoiiter than the others, and much 
compressed laterally, with the outer surface rounded, close to the base, 
but becoming compressed and keeled farther out, and having a high 
median ridge along its middle region, becoming narrow toward the 
tip. The ventral arms are trapezoidal in section, with a narrow fold 



A. E. Verrill — Nortli American Cephalopods. 271 

along the outer angle, which is acute, while the ventral angle is 
rounded. 

The tentacular-arms (Plate XXVIII, figs, la, 2) are long; when 
extended, in fresh specimens, they reach back beyond the base of the 
caudal fin. They are rather stout, rounded-trapezoidal along the 
peduncular portion ; along the upper-outer angle a thin fold runs 
from the base to the tip, becoming a wide carina on the backside of 
the club ; two less marked folds run along the inner angles, defining 
a narrow inner face, along the whole length, but on this face there 
are no suckers, except close to where it begins to expand into the 
broader face of the club; along the sides of the club, the marginal 
membranes become much wider, rising to a level with the suckers. 

In the male of our species, one of the ventral arms (Plate XXVIII, 
figs. 3, 3a) is strongly hectocotylized, somewhat as in Loligo. But 
in this species it is the right arm, about as often as the left, that is 
modified. Toward the tip of the arm, for some distance, the pedicels 
of the suckers, especially of the outer row, become shorter, and the 
bases of the sucker-stalks become larger, broader, and transversely 
compressed, while the cups of the suckers themselves decrease rapidly, 
till they become very minute, and on a number of the most flattened 
and largest stalks, they are entirely abortive, in the case of the 
medium sized males, but, very close to the tip, they may again become 
normal. The inner row of suckers is more or less modified, in a 
similar manner; but fewer of the sucker stalks are affected, and these 
are, usually, not so extensively altered, though in the larger males 
many of them are commonly destitute of cups and have the same flat- 
tened form as those of the outer row, with which they are usually 
united along the median line of the arm, forming a zigzag ridge. 
In a very large male (J), with the right ventral arm modified, the 
alteration of the sucker-stalks becomes obvious at about the 45th 
sucker, and there are, beyond this, about 80 modified suckers, ex- 
tending to the very tip ; of these about 30, in the outer row, are 
represented only by the flat, lamelliform bases of the sucker-stalks, 
without cups ; on the inner row, the small cups extend for about ten 
suckers farther than on the outer. The lamelliform processes are united 
medially in a zigzag line, along the entire tip. The modified part is 
about an inch in length. This arm is as long as its mate, (though in 
other specimens it is often shorter) ; but it is broader, stouter, and 
more blunt at tip, both the inner face and lateral membrane being in- 
creased in width. The younger males, 4 to 6 in, long, have the corre- 
sponding suckers less extensively modified, and the cups, though very 
much reduced in size, are usually present on all or nearly all the stalks. 



2*72 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

The portion of the tentacles which bears suckers is always less 
than half the whole length. The relative size of the suckers varies 
greatly in hoth sexes, perhaps in connection with a periodical 
renewal of their horny rings. 

The club is long and moderately broad, gradually widening from 
the peduncular part of the arm, and tapering at the end to a rather 
blunt, flattened and curved tip, which is strongly carinated on the 
outer side by a thin lamina. The suckers commence a short distance 
in advance of the expansion of the club. They are at first small, 
deep cup-shaped, and somewhat scattered, in two alternate rows, but 
all of these small ones have oblique rims, strongly denticulated 
on the outer margin with four or five long incurved teeth, while the 
inner edge is smooth. Of the small ones, before the commencement 
of the two median rows of large suckers, there are from ten to fifteen. 

The middle region of the club is occupied by two rows of large 
suckers (fig. V) and by a row of small marginal ones, on each side, 
alternating with the large ones. The uppermost of the two rows of 
large suckers contains one or two more suckers than tlie lower, and 
they are also larger. The number in the upper row is seven to nine, 
in the lower five to seven, the largest specimens having the greater 
number. Of these, the three to five middle ones in each row are 
decidedly the largest and have the edge of the marginal ring nearly 
smooth and even ; at each end of each row the suckers diminish in 
size and the edge becomes denticulate, at first by the formation of 
narrow incisions, which leave broad, stout, blunt denticles ; but as 
the suckers diminish in size these become longer, narrower and more 
acute ; their inner margins remain smooth. The large suckers are 
broad and moderately deep, somewhat swollen below, and a little 
oblique. The marginal suckers are much smaller, shallower, more 
oblique, and have the entire rim finely and sharply denticulate, the den- 
ticles being longer and strongly incurved on the outer margin. Beyond 
the rows of large suckers there is, at first, a small group of sharply 
denticulate suckers, in four rows, resembling the marginal ones in 
form and size ; but these rapidly decrease in size and are succeeded 
by eight crowded rows of very small suckers, with minute apertures, 
which occupy the entire face of the terminal section to the tip. 

The suckers of the sessile arms are largest on the two lateral pairs, 
on which they are nearly equal, and the largest are about the same 
in size as those on the tentacular-club ;* those of the ventral arms are 
smallest ; those of the dorsal arms are intermediate in size between 

* In the males the tentacular suckers are usually the smaller ; in the females often 
the larger. 



A. E. Yerrill — Worth American Cephalopods. 2V3 

those of the lateral and ventral arms. The first few suckers (three to 
five), at the base of each arm, are smaller than those beyond, but 
increase regularly in size; they have the edge of the rim nearly 
entire, or with only a few blunt teeth on the outer margin ; then 
follow about twelve suckers, of the largest size. These large 
suckers (Plate XXVIII, figs. 5, 5a) are deep, oblique cup-shaped, 
somewhat swollen in the middle, with oblique horny rims, which are 
entire on the inner margin, but on the outer have a large, strongly 
incurved, acute median tooth, on each side of which there are usually 
four or five shorter, flat, blunt teeth ; but toward the base of the arms 
these are fewer and shorter, while distally they become more numerous, 
longer, and more acute, and often the edge is more or less denticulate 
nearly all around. The larger suckers are followed by a regularly de- 
creasing series of thirty to forty smaller secondary ones (figs. 6, 6a), not 
counting the numerous very small ones, within one-third of an inch of 
the tip. These secondary suckers grade gradually into the large or 
primary ones, both in size and form ; they are, however, armed with 
four or five very sharp incurved teeth, on the outer margin, of which 
the median one is longest, while the inner margin is usually entire. 
They are very oblique and one-sided in form. The membrane around 
the rim of all the suckers is thickened, but most so on the basal ones ; 
it usually recedes behind the large median tooth, leaving there an 
emargination. 

The outer buccal membrane is not very large ; its inner surface is 
closely covered with laraelliform folds and wrinkles ; its border is 
prolonged into seven acute angles, from which membranes extend to 
the opposite arms, going to the upper sides of the second and fourth 
pairs of arms ; to the lower side of the third pair ; but the seventh 
angle is in the median dorsal line, and the membrane from it bifur- 
cates, one-half going to the inner side of each dorsal arm. Imme- 
diately around the jaws there is a circular, thickened, rugose oral 
membrane, with a strongly lobed edge, while its inner surface is 
radially wrinkled and covered with scattered rounded verrucae. A 
plain fold intervenes between this and the outer buccal membranes. 

The jaws are sharp and incurved at tip, reddish brown to brownish 
black in color, with the posterior borders of the laminre whitish and 
translucent. The upper mandible has a much incurved tip, with the 
cutting edges regularly curved, and with a shallow notch at their 
bases, beyond which the anterior edges rise into a broad obtuse lobe 
or low tooth, by which the hardened and dark-coloi'ed part, as seen by 
transmitted light, has the form of a sharp angular tooth, but its 



274 A. E. Yerrill — North American Cephalopods. 

actual projection anteriorly is but slight, because the translucent 
edge beyond it rises to about the same level. The lateral-posterior 
borders of the frontal lamiuiB are sinuous and incurved in the middle; 
the palatine lamina is broad, with the posterior lateral edges incurved 
and sinuous. 

The lower mandible has the extreme tip strongly incurved, forming 
a slight notch, close to the tip, below which the edges are slightly 
incurved or nearly straight, with a decided V-shaped notch at the 
base ; the anterior edges, beyond the notch, form a triangular tooth 
of the inner lamiuiB, but this is obscured, unless viewed by trans- 
mitted light, by the outer alar laminae, which rises at its anterior 
edge, which is translucent, nearly to a level with the tooth ; the 
inner ends of the alae are wider than the middle, and broadly rounded ; 
the gular laminas are short, narrowed posteriorly, with their inner 
edges incurved, and with a thickened, prominent ventral carina. 

The jaws of a large specimen measure as follows: upper mandible, 
tip to posterior end of palatine lamina, 22'""'; to dorsal end of frontal 
lamina, 16; to posterior lateral edge of same, 9; to base of cutting 
edge, 5 ; inner edge of palatine lamina to dorsal end of frontal 
lamina, 17. Lower mandible, tip to inner end of alse, 13"^"^; to ven- 
tral notch of alse, 4 ; to venti'al notch of gular laminae, 9 ; to posterior 
end of same, 16 ; to base of cutting edges, 5. 

The buccal mass has, on the outer surface of the dorsal and lateral 
sides, a broad, thin, brown horny plate, with a notch posteriorly, in 
the median line. 

The odontophore (Plate XXXVII, tig. 8), is remarkable for the 
length and sharpness of the teeth, especially of the central and outer 
rows. The median teeth have a long and very acute median denticle, 
with much shorter lateral ones. The inner lateral teeth have broad 
bases and a long and very sharp central denticle, with a much shorter 
lateral one, on the outside. The next to the outer lateral teeth are 
simple, slender and sharp. The outer lateral teeth are much longer, 
strongly curved, and very acute. 

The pen (Plate XXVIII, fig. 4) is long and slender, with a slender 
midrib and strong marginal ribs ; the anterior end is thin, broad pen- 
shaped, subacute ; from very near the anterior end it tapers gradu- 
ally backward to about the posterior fourth, where it becomes very 
narrow, apparently consisting only of the consolidated lateral ribs 
and midrib, the former showing on the ventral side a thin groove 
between them, the latter appearing as a slender ridge on the dorsal 
side. The posterior portion is narrow-lanceolate in form, with thin 



A. K Verrill — North American Gephalopods. 2*75 

edges, and a strong midrib, composed of the united marginal ribs of 
the anterior portion ; the thin edges are incurved, so as to give a 
canoe-shaped form to this portion, and near the tip, the edges unite 
beneath into a short hood-like tip. Anteriorly the lateral ribs show 
two grooves on the venti-al side, and appear to be composed of three 
united ribs. 

The ground-color of a specimen taken by me, in 18Y0, at Eastport, 
Maine, when first caught, was pale bluish-white, with green, blue and 
yellow iridescence on the sides and lower surface ; the whole body, 
head, and outer surfaces of arms and fins were more or less thickly 
covered with small, unequal, circular, orange-brown and dark brown 
spots, having crenulate margins ; these spots were continually chang- 
ing in size, from mere points, when they were nearly black, to spots 
^mm ^Q ]^ .5111111 j,^ diameter, when they were pale orange-brown, becom- 
ing lighter colored as they expanded. On the lower side of body, 
head, and siphon the spots were more scattered, but the intervals were 
generally less than the diameter of the spots. On the upper side the 
spots were much crowded and in diflerent planes, with the edges often 
overlapping, thus increasing the variety of the tints. Along the mid- 
dle of the back the ground-color was pale flesh-color, with a distinct 
median dorsal band, along which the spots were more crowded and 
tinged with green, in fine specks. Above each eye there was a broad 
lunate spot of light purplish red, with smaller and much crowded 
brown spots. The upper surface of the head was deeply colored by 
the brown spots, which were here larger, darker, and more crowded 
than elsewhere, and situated in several strata. The under sides of the 
arms and fins were colored like the body, except that the spots were 
smaller and much less numerous. The suckers were pure white. The 
eyes were dark, blue-black, surrounded by an iridescent border. 

The colors change constantly, when living or recently dead, by 
means of the continual contraction and dilation of the chromato- 
phores. The different tints pass over the surface like blushes. 

In specimens recently preserved in alcohol, the same pattern of 
coloration is usually visible. The dark dorsal band on the body and 
head, and the dark patches above the eyes, as well as smaller dark 
patches in front of the eyes, can be plainly seen. In these darker 
parts the chromatophores are much crowded, and have a purplish 
brown color, varying to chocolate-brown in specimens longer pre- 
served. On other parts of the body the chromatophores are more 
scattered and usually reddish brown in color, with a circular or ellip- 
tical outline ; when expanded, the larger ones are about 1'"" in diam- 
Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 34 June, 1880. 



276 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

eter. The under surfaces of the fins, siphon, head, and arms have 
fewer and smaller spots, and are, therefore, lighter colored, and 
appear nearly white when these spots are contracted. 

A fresh specimen, caught in Casco Bay, in 1873, had the following 
pi'oportions : Length of head and body, not including the arms, 
221""" ; length of caudal fin, 86 ; breadth of fin, 90 ; diameter of body, 
35; length of upper arms, 80; of second pair, 100; of third pair, 
100; of the ventral pair, 90; of tentacular-arms, 182™"\ 

Of our species, I have measured large numbers of specimens, pre- 
served in different ways, and also fresh, and have found no great vari- 
ation in the form and relative length of the caudal fin, among speci- 
mens of similar size and in similar states of preservation, nor do the 
sexes differ in this respect. The young, however, differ very de- 
cidedly from the large specimens in these respects. The modes of 
preservation also cause much of the variation in the proportions of 
fins and arms to the mantle. The two sexes are j^robably equally 
numerous, but in our collections the females usually predominate, and 
the largest specimens are usually females, though equally large males 
occur. In 31 measured specimens, in alcohol, from various localities 
and of both sexes, the average length, from tip of tail to dorsal 
edge of the mantle, was 176""" (6-96 inches); from tip of tail to inser- 
tion of fin, 66"'°^ (2'60 inches) ; average proportion of fin to mantle- 
length, 1 : 2 •68. Among these the proportions varied from as low as 
1 : 2-48, in some of the larger ones (with mantle above 8 inches), up to 
1 : 3-00, in the smaller ones (with the mantle less than 3 inches long). 

The following tables are intended to illustrate the natural varia- 
tion in the proportions, due mainly to age, and the accidental varia- 
tions caused by differences in the modes of preservation and strength 
of the alcohol. 

The specimens from Eastport, Me., designated G. H. I. R., were 
collected at one time, in midsummer, and preserved in the same way, 
in alcohol of moderate strength, repeatedly changed ; at the present 
time the strength of the alcohol is about 80 per cent. They are in 
good condition, moderately firm and not badly contracted. Those 
designated as D. E. F. N. O. P., were also collected at one time, in 
August, and preserved together. They are in fair condition, but not 
so well preserved as the former lot. Those numbered ii to xiv 
were preserved together, about the last of July. They were placed 
in strong alcohol and are hard and badly contracted. J. K. and L. 
were preserved together, but were originally found dead on the beach 
and in a relaxed state. They are only moderately contracted by 
the alcohol. 



A. K Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 21 \ 

Measurements of Ommastrephes illecehrosa (in inches). 



02 



P? 



D? 



E$ 



J3 



15 



R3 



"W5 



Fresh. 



Tail to tip of dorsal arms, - 

Tail to lip of second pair arms,.. 
Tail to tip of third pair arms, . . . 
Tail to tip of fourth pair arms, . . 
Tail to tip of tentaciilar-arms, — 

Tail to base of dorsal arms, 

Tail to center of eye, 

Tail to edge of mantle, above, — 
Tail to edge of mantle, below, — 

TaQ to insertion of fin, — 

Breadth of fin, . 

Distance between lateral inser- 
tions, - 

Front edge, outer angle to inser- 
tion, 

Back edge, outer angle to tip of 

tail, 

Circumference of body, 

Breadth of body 

Breadth of head at eyes, 

Breadth of eye-opening, 

Breadth of siphon at bridle, . . 
Length of head, mantle to base of 

dorsal arms, .- 

Length of dorsal arms, 

Length of 2d pair, 

Leng^th of Bd pair, 

Length of 4th pair, 

Length of tentacular-arms, 

Length of club, 

Breadth of dorsal arms, 

Breadth of 2d pair, 

Breadth of 3d pair, 

Breadth of 4th pair, 

Breadth of tentacular-arms, 

Breadth of club, . .. 

Front to back of 3d pair, 

Diameter of Suckers : 

Largest on tentacular-arms, 

Largest on 3d pair, 

Largest on ventral arms, 



13-40 

14-20 

14-20 

13-10 

16-50 

10-00 

9-30 

8-60 

8-20 

3-30 

4-201 



Projjortions : 
Length of fin to mantle length, 1 : 
Breadth of fin to mantle length, 1 : 

Length* to breadth of fin, 1 : 

Length of head to mantle, 1 : 



2-20 

3-30 

4-80 

1-70 

1-60 

-40 

-75 

1-40 

3-75 

4-30 

4-10 

3-60 

6-80 

3-30 

•35 

■45 

-45 

■44 

•25 

■30 

■65 

-1 

■18 

-11 

2-60 
2^04 
1-21 
6-14 



2-20 



2-50 
1-86 
1-34 
5^70 



12-75 

13-25 

15^5 
9^00 
8-25 
7-75 
7-30 
3^10 
4^25 

■50 

2-00 

3-15 



1-35 
-35 
-65 

1-25 

3-25 

400 

4-00 

3-50 

6-50 

2-75 

■28 

■35 

•35 

■32 

-30 

-22 

•50 

-15 
•14 
•10 

2-50 
1-82 
1-37 
€■20 



10^50 

11-00 

12^00 
7-90 
7^35 
7^10 

2-75 
3^78 

•40 

1-90 

2-90 



70 
15 
00 
80 
00 
85 
25 
30 
28 
30 
30 
18 
40 

-11 
-11 
-09 



2-58 
1-87 
1-37 

8-87 



13-50 

14-30 

14-20 

13^40 

15-50 

10-00 

9-50 

8^70 

8-10 

3-50 

5^15 

-65 

2-60 

3-50 

6'50 

2-15 

1^65 

•36 

■78 

1-30 

2-65 

4^40 

4^55 

3^80 

5-80 

2-55 

■35 

•45 

■50 

■45 

•28 

•25 

•65 

•1 

•21 

•11 

2-48 
1^69 
1^46 
6^70 



10^50 

10-80 

11-00 

10-60 

12-20 

8^30 

7-75 

7^50 

7^15 

2^90 

3^80 

•45 

2-80 

3^00 
4^30 
1-30 
1-20 
•20 
•60 

•80 

2^20 

2^70 

2^67 

2^43 

4-00 

1-75 

■30 

•35 

•35 

•35 

•20 

•22 

•45 

■10 
•14 
•09 

2^58 
1^97 
r30 
9^30 



2^10 



8^25 



6-50 

5^70 
5^38 
2^]0 
2-65 



1^45 

2^00 

1-10 

1^00 

•25 



1^75 

2^25 

2^25 

2^(iO 

4^50 

1-30 

•20 

•25 

•25 

•25 

•17 



8^84 



3-44? 
3^60 



140 



3^20 
4^00 
4^00 
3-60 

7-28 



■13 
•14 
•07 

2-57 
^84 
1^39 
7^20 



2^71 
2-15 
\-26 
7^12 



The same specimens, included both in this and the following tables, show small 
differences in their measurements (made at different times), due partly to the different 
degrees of extension employed in measuring them, and partly to the fact that the 
alcohol had been changed, and its strength altered. 



* The length of the fin, in these tables, means the distance from the lateral inser- 
tions to the tip of the tail, which is somewhat less than the extreme length. 



2V8 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



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A. IE. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



279 



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designation, 

)ody to edge of mantle, above, 

ody to edge of mantle, beneath, . 

ody to origin of fin, 

)ody to center of eye, 

ody to base of dorsal arms, .... 

p of dorsal arras, 

p of 2d pair of arms.. _ 

p of 3d pair of axms, 

p of 4th pair of arms. 

p of tentacular-a rms, 

of head across eyes, 

of head in front of eyes, 

of body, — 

of caudal fins, 

rence of body, — 

f tentacular-club, 

■ of largest suckers of club, 

5t suckers on 3d pair arms, 

fin to length of mantle, 1 : 

of fin to length of mantle, 1 : 





280 



A. E. Verrill — JVorfh American Cephalopods. 



Coast of Rhode Island (Verrill) to Cumberland Gulf (Kumlein). 
Abundant from Cape Cod to Newfoundland. Newport, R. I. (U. 
S. Fish Com.) Vineyard Sd., Mass., rare, large in winter, small 
in May (V. N. Edwards). 

Ommastrephes illecehrosa. — Specimens exam,ined. 











SpecimeuB. 


No. 


Locality. 


When Collected. 


Received from. 


No. Sex. 


10280 


Newport, R. I. 


1872 


U. S. Fish Com. 


1 young. 


10027, J. 


Vineyard Sound. 


Nov. 2, 1876 


V. N. Edwards 


1 ,5 , left-hand. 


10027, K. 


" '' 


a 11 


a a 


1? 


10027, L. 


U II 


" " 


1. a 


1? 


M. 


U 11 


May, 1876 


a a 


1 ^ , r.-hand. 


W. 


Provincetown, Mass. 

a 11 


July, 1879 

a a 


U. S. Fish Com. 

a a 


1 5 , fig'd. 

95 


.- 


It 11 


a a 


a a 


5? 


.. 


11 a 


11 a 


a a 


3 young. 




a 11 


a a 


a a 


28 + , dupl. 


.. 


Salem, Mass. 


Oct. 25, 187.3 


J. H. Emerton 


1 9 




Gloucester, Mass. 


1878 


U. S. Fish Com. 


1 young. 


S. T. U. 


Casco Bay, Me. 


1873 


U. S. Fish Com. 


32 


X. 


Off Seguin I., Me. (50 fath.) 


1879 


(lot. 517)U.S.F.C. 


1 S young. 


_. 


Mt. Desert, Me. 


1860 


A. E. Verrill 


50 + , large. 


_. 


Off Ca she's Ledge. 


1873 (loc. 21) 


U. S. Fish Com. 


1, mutilated. 


9693, G. 


Eastport, Me. 


1870 


A. E. Verrill 


1 $ , laro-e. 


969.S, H. I. 


a a 


" 


a a 


2 3 , left-hand. 


969.3, R. 


a a 


" 


11 a 


1 i, , r.-hand. 


D. E. F. 


" " 


1872 


U. S. Fish Com. 


3 ? , large. 


N. 0. P. 


a a 


a 


a a 


3S 




11 a 


" 


a a 


1 young. 




Halifax, N. S. 


J. R. Willis 


Smithsonian 


1 young. 


10028 


a a 


J. M. Jones 


J. M. Jones 


1 $ , large. 


10278, Q. 


Newfoundland. 


a a 


a a 


1 5 , large. 


-- 


Cumberland Gulf. 


L. Kumlein 


Nat. Museum 


1 mutilated. 



Several of the smaller specimens, included in this list, are so young 
that it is impossible to determine their sex with certainty, without 
dissection. The hectocotylization of the ventral arm in the male is 
scarcely recognizable in those with the mantle less than 4 inches long. 

The Mediterranean form, usually identified with the var. b, of Z>oU- 
go sagittata Lamarck, 1799,* is closely related to our species, but if 
the published figures and descriptions can be relied upon, it can 
hardly be identical, as D'Orbignj' and other writers have considered 
it. The American form has a more elongated body, with a differently 
shaped caudal fin, which is relatively shorter than the best authors 
attribute to O. sagiUatus. The figure given by Verany is, however, an 
exception in this respect, for in it the body is represented about as 

* It seems more probable, however, that Lamarck's description applied rather to 0. 
Bartramii (Les. sp.) of the Gulf Stream region. Blainville and others have thus ap- 
plied it, correctly, as I believe. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 281 

long as in some of our larger specimens.* It should be remarked, bow- 
ever, that Lesueur's figure of 0. illecehrosa shows the body too small 
and too short in proportion to the size of the fin, and the fin wrong 
in shape and occupying more than half the length of the mantle ; the 
proportions of the arms are also erroneous. But Lesueur explains 
these defects by his statement that the figures were hasty sketches 
made for the sake of preserving the colors, and that he saved a speci- 
men by which to correct, afterwards, his drawings and description, 
but the specimen saved turned out to be L. pavo^ so that the orig- 
inal sketches were published without correction. Tryon's figure 342 
is a poor copy of one of Lesueur's, without credit. 

If the European form be i-eally identical with the American, its dis- 
tribution is very anomalous, for while the former is a southern Euro- 
pean form, inhabiting the Mediterranean and scarcely extending north 
of the southern waters of Great Britain, where it appears to be rare, our 
species is strictly a northern, cold water form, rarely found south of 
Cape Cod, even in winter. Its range extends quite to the Arctic Ocean. 

Notes on Habits. 

When living, this is a very beautiful creature, owing to the bril- 
liancy of its eyes and its bright and quickly changing colors. It is 
also very quick and graceful in its movements. This is the most com- 
mon ' squid ' north of Cape Cod, and extends as far south as Newport, 
R. I. It is very abundant in Massachusetts Bay, the Bay of Fundy, 
and northward to Newfoundland. It is taken on the coast of New- 
foundland in immense numbers, and used as bait for cod-fish. It oc- 
curs in vast schools when it visits the coast, but whether it seeks 
those shores for the purpose of spawning or in search of food is not 
known. I have been unable to learn anything personally in regard 
to its breeding habits, nor have I been able to ascertain that anyone 
has any information in regard either to the time, manner, or place of 
spawning. At Eastport, Me., I have several times observed them in 
large numbers, in midsummer. But at that time they seem to be 
wholly engaged in the pursuit of food, following the schools of her- 
ring, which were then in pursuit of shrimp {Thysanopoda Norvegica)., 
which occur in the Bay of Fundy, at times, in great quantities, swim- 
ming at the surface. The stomachs of the squids taken on these oc- 
casions were distended with fragments of Thysanopoda, or with the 
flesh of the herring, or with a mixture of the two, but their reproduc- 

* According to Jeffreys (Brit. Conch., V, p. 129, pi. 5) the English 0. sagittatus ha^ 
the fin " from | to nearly ^ the length of the mantle ;" and the form of the 
figured by him, is different from that of our species. Jt\^/ O^ ^^ 









282 A. M Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

tive organs were not in an active condition. The same is true of all 
the specimens that I have taken at other localities in summer. From 
the fact that the oviducts are small and simple, and the nidamental 
glands little developed, I believe that it will eventually prove that 
this species discharges its eggs free in the ocean, and that they will 
be found floating at the surface, either singly or in gelatinous masses 
or bands, not having any complicated capsules to enclose them. 
Nothing is known as to the length of time required by this species to 
attain its full size. It probably lives several years. 

This squid is an exceedingly active creature, darting with great 
velocity backward, or in any other direction, by means of the reaction 
of the jet of water which is ejected with great force from the siphon, 
and which may be directed forward or backward, or to the right or 
left, by bending the siphon. Even when confined in a limited space, 
as in a fish-pound, it is not an easy matter to captui-e them with a 
dip-net, so quick will they dart away, to the right and left. When 
darting rapidly the lobes of the caudal fin are closely wrapped around 
the body* and the arms are held tight together, forming an acute 
bundle in front, so that the animal, in this condition, is sharp at both 
ends, and passes through the water with the least possible resistance. 
Its caudal fin is used as an accessory organ of locomotion when it 
slowly swims about, or balances itself for some time nearly in one 
position in the water. 

The best observations of the modes of capturing its prey are by 
Messrs. S. I. Smith and Oscar Harger, who observed it at Province- 
town, Massachusetts, among the wharves, in large numbers, July 28, 
1872, engaged in capturing and devouring the young mackerel, which 
were swimming about in ' schools,' and at that time were about four 
or five inches long. In attacking the mackerel they would suddenly 
dart backwai-d among the fish with the velocity of an arrow, and as 
suddenly turn obliquely to the right or left and seize a fish, which 
was almost instantly killed by a bite in the back of the neck with 
their sharp beaks. The bite was always made in the same place, cut- 
ting out a triangular piece of flesh, and was deep enough to penetrate 
to the spinal cord. The attacks were not always successful, and were 
sometimes repeated a dozen times before one of these active and wary 

* This position of the fins is well shown in Plate 26, fig. 341, of Binney's edition of 
Gould's Invertebrata of Massachusetts. This figure was probably drawn by Mr. Burk- 
hardt from living specimens formerly kept in Cutting's Aquarium, in Boston, about 
1860 to 1862. This figure is very good, in most respects, except that the clubs of the 
tentacles have been confounded with the ventral pair of the sessile arms, and thus the 
suckers are made to continue along the whole length of the tentacles. 



A. E. Verrill — N'orth American Cephalopods. 283 

fishes could be caught. Sometimes, after making several unsuccess- 
ful attempts, one of the squids would suddenly drop to the bottom, 
and, resting upon the sand, would change its color to that of the sand 
so perfectly as to be almost invisible. In this position it would wait 
until the fishes came back, and when they were swimming close to or 
over the ambuscade, the squid, by a sudden dart, would be pretty 
sure to secure a fish. Ordinarily, when swimming, the}- were thickly 
spotted with red and brown, but when darting among the mackerel 
they appeared translucent and pale. The mackerel, however, set med 
to have learned that the shallow water was the safest for them, and 
would hug the shore as closely as possible, so that in pursuing them 
many of the squids became stranded, and j^erished by hundreds, for 
when they once touch the shore they begin to pump water from their 
siphons with great energy, and this usually forces them farther and 
farther up the beach. At such times they often discharge their ink 
in large quantities. The attacks on the young mackerel were ob- 
served mostly at or near high-water, for at other times the mackerel 
were seldom seen, though the squids were seen swimming about at 
all hours ; and these attacks were observed both in the day and 
evening. 

It is probable, from various observations, that this and other 
species of squids are partially nocturnal in their habits, or at least are 
more active in the night than in the day. Those that are caught in 
the pounds and weirs mostly enter in the night, evidently while swim- 
ming along the shores in ' schools.' They often get aground on the 
sand-flats at Provincetown, Massachusetts, in the night. On the 
islands in the Bay of Fundy, even whei'e there are no flats, I have 
often found them in the morning, stranded on the beaches in immense 
numbers, especially when there is a full moon, and it is thought by 
many of the fishermen that this is because, like many other nocturnal 
animals, they have the habit of turning toward and gazing at a bright 
light, and since they swim backwards, they get ashore on the beaches 
opposite the position of the moon. This habit is also sometimes 
taken advantage of by the fishermen, who capture them for bait for 
cod-fish ; they go out in dark nights with torches in their boats, and 
by advancing slowly toward a beach, drive them ashore. 

They are taken in large quantities in nets and pounds, and also by 
means of 'jigs' thrown at random into the 'schools' and quickly 
drawn through them. They are also sometimes taken by lines, ad- 
hering to the bait used for fishes. 

Tbans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V, 35 January, 1881, 



284 A. E. Verrill — ISforth American Cephalopods. 

Their habit of discharging an inky fluid through the siphon, when 
irritated or alarmed, is well known. The ink is said to have caustic 
and irritating properties. 

This squid, like the LoUgo, is eagerly pursued by the cod and 
many other voracious fishes, even when adult. Among its enemies 
while young, are the full grown mackerel, who thus retaliate for the 
massacre of their own young by the squids. The specimens observed 
catching young mackerel were mostly eight to ten inches long, and 
some of them were still larger. 

From the rapidity with which the squids devour the fish that they 
capture, it is evident that the jaws are the principal organs used, and 
that the odontophore plays only a subordinate part in feeding. This 
is confirmed by the condition of the food ordinarily found in the 
stomach, for both the fishes and the shrimp are usually in fragments 
and shreds of some size, and smaller creatures, like amphipods, are 
often found entire, or nearly so ; even the vertebrse and other bones 
of herring are often present. On the other hand, in some specimens, 
the contents of the stomach are finely divided, as if the odontophore 
had been used for that purpose. 

JVbtes on the Visceral Anatomy. 
Plate XXXVIII, figure 2. Plate XXXIX, figijbe 2. 

This species, in common with others of the same genus, is very 
different from Loligo Pealei in the form and structure of many of its 
internal organs. The branchial cavity is larger and the gills (^, ^) 
originate farther back and are much larger than in Loligo, their 
length being about two-fifths the entire length of the body ; they 
originate back nearly at the middle of the body. The liver (^, /) is 
much larger and more conspicuous, consisting of two large, oblong, 
lateral lobes or masses, closely united together in the median plane, 
with a groove along the dorsal side, in which lies the oesophagus. ■ The 
ink-bag (^) is elongated-pyriform, with a silvery luster externally, 
but blackish when filled with the ' ink.' The size and form of the 
stomach and its coecal lobe (s, s') vary greatly according to their 
degree of distention with food. When well filled they are large, 
thin, saccular, and more or less pyrifonn; the coecal lobe extending 
back nearly to the end of the body. The intestine (/t) has two 
spatulate papillae, one on each side of the anal orifice. 

The heart {H) is large, somewhat irregular, and unsymmetrical, 
with four points, the two lateral continuous with the afferent vessels 



A. E. Verrilt — NortK American Cephalopods. 285 

{ho) of the gills; the anterior passing into the anterior aorta {ao) ; 
the posterior, median one, continuous with the posterior aorta, gives 
off, first a small ventral branch, which supplies the reproductive 
organs, and then later a median ventral artery (o), going to the 
mantle ; while much farther back it divides into two branches (o', o') 
which supply the sides of the mantle and caudal fin. The branchial 
auricles [cm) are large and ovate, with a small round capsule at the 
posterior end. 

The urinary organs or ' kidneys ' (r, r) are voluminous, lobulated 
organs, intimately connected with the venae cavae, and mostly situated 
below and in front of the heart, but there is a more compact glandular 
portion (r') extending, as usual, backw^ard along each of the posterior 
venae cavfe {vc") in the form of a long pyriform gland. Just in 
front of the bases of the gills, on each side, there is a circular opening 
[u) through the peritoneal membrane, which probably gives exit to 
the urinary excretions. 

The reproductive organs of the female, however, present the 
greatest divergence from Loligo, and allied forms. Instead of hav- 
ing a single large oviduct, on the left side only, and opening far for- 
ward, w^e find, in this genus, two small oviducts [od) symmetrically 
placed and opening much farther back. Moreover, instead of the 
large and very conspicuous, unsymmetrical nidamental glands, situated 
in front of the heart, as in Loligo, we find in Oniniastrejyhes much 
smaller and simpler glands {xx) situated much farther back, side by 
side, near the median line. 

The ovary (ou) is a long, pyriform, lobulated organ ; its anterior 
end is attached to the posterior end of the stomach, and is divided 
into several short lobes, which clasp the end of the stomach ; its 
small posterior end extends backward into the concavity of the 
hooded portion of the pen {p"). 

The spermary or testicle of the male (Plate XXXVIII, fig. 2, t) 
occupies the same position as the ovary ; it is a more compact organ, 
with a smoother surface, and the anterior lobes are longer and 
narrower and extend farther forward along the sides of the stomach. 
The prostate gland and other male organs resemble those of Loligo 
(see Plate XL, figures 1, 2). 

It must be borne in mind, however, that none of the specimens 
examined were in their breeding season. Consequently the repro- 
ductive organs were all much smaller and less conspicuous than they 
would have been in breeding individuals. This is particularly the 
case with the ovaries and spermaries, but the same remark would 



286 



A. E. Verritl — North American Clephalopods. 



also apjDly to the nidamental glands, which might assume a different 
form, as well as greater volume, at the breeding season. 

The specimens dissected had all been preserved in alcohol, which, 
also, would cause these organs to appear smaller than is natural. 

Additional yiote 07i distribution. — After the previous pages were 
printed, additional specimens of this species were obtained, extending 
its range much farther southward, in the deep water, near the edge 
of the Gulf Stream. Although we cannot be certain that specimens 
thus caught in the trawl were living at the bottom, owing to the 
possibility of their entering it during its ascent, it is very probable 
that they do actually inhabit those depths. This is rendered more 
probable by the fact that we found adult specimens in the stomachs 
of fishes {Zophius), taken at stations 865 and 893. The most south- 
ern specimens known were taken by Mr. A. Agassiz on the " Blake," 
off Cape Hatteras, in 263 fathoms. 



Additional Sjjedmem 


Examined. 






Locality. 


Fath. 


When 
Coll'd. 


Rec'd. 
From. 


Specimens. 
No. Sex 


865. N. L. 40° 05'; W. Lg. 10° 23' 
893. N. L. 39° 52' 20" ; W. Lg. 70° 58' 
CCCXXXil, N. L. 35°45'30"; W. Lg. 74" 48' 


65 
372 
263 


1880 
1880 
1880 


U. S. F. Com. 

a u 

"Blake" exp. 


1 ad. 

1 ad. 

3 $ ad. 



Sthenoteuthis megaptera Verriil. 

This volume, p. 223, plate 21, figs. 1-9, Feb., 1880. 

Plate XXI. Plate XXVII, figure 6. Plate XLV, figures 5, 5a. 

Since printing the description of this species, in the first part of 
this volume, when only two examples were known, some additional 
specimens have been obtained. 

The most important of these consists of the tentacular club and 
the pharynx, with the jaws and odontophore complete (Plate XLV, 
fio-, 5). These are from a specimen, of which the head and arms were 
found in the mouth of a cod-fish, on the eastern part of George's 
Bank, by Manuel D. Mitchel, and were by him presented to the U. S. 
Fish Commission. The portions of the specimen not saved were 
used as bait for cod. The arms were described as 18 inches long. 

The pai't of the tentacular club in my possession, which does not 
include the proximal portion, is 175'""' long, 17 broad, in the middle; 
the distal portion, beyond the large suckers, is 62 long, breadth of 
its sucker-bearing face, 8 ; from front to back, including width of 
dorsal keel, but not the suckers, 18 ; diameter of largest suckers, 12, 
of horny rings, 11 ; of aperture, 8 ; height of horny ring, outer side, 



A. M Verrill — iSforth American Oephatopods. 28*/ 

including teeth, 6'5 ; length of pedicels, 5 ; distance between pedicels, 
15™". The large suckers agree very well with those described and 
figured from the type-specimen (PI. XXI, fig. 9) ; this portion of the 
club had nine of these large suckers in each row ; their pedicels arise 
from the middle of deep squarish depressions, between which run 
thick transverse ridges, which bear the smaller marginal suckers 
toward their outer ends, and then support the marginal membrane. 
A part of the large suckers have retained their horny rings, but all 
the marginal and small distal suckers have lost them. The horny 
rings of the large suckers (fig. 5a) are oblique, much higher on the 
outer than on the inner side ; the edge bears about 28 sharp, incurved, 
well-separated, unequal teeth ; of these the largest is at the middle of 
the outer edge ; another smaller one, but larger than its fellows, is at 
the middle of the inner edge; two others, in size similar to the last, 
occupy the middle of the lateral edges ; thus the edge is divided 
into four equal parts, by the four larger teeth, between which there 
are five or six smaller, very acute teeth, separated by spaces greater 
than their breadth. The horny rings are amber-brown, the teeth are 
golden yellow at tip. The distal portion of the club is compressed, 
with the face narrow and tapering, but with an elevated dorsal keel ; 
it bears four crowded rows of small, pedicelled suckers, the two 
rows on one side of the median line being composed of very much 
smaller suckers than the other two. At the very tip of the club 
there is a round cluster of small, smooth suckers, as in Architeuthis. 
The buccal mass is 52"'" in length and 42 in diameter. A thick 
buccal membrane, covered with low, irregular verrucae, surrounds the 
jaws. The jaws are sharp and strong ; their exposed portions are 
black, the ala3 reddish brown. The beak of the upper jaw is long, 
strongly incurved, acute, its cutting edge regularly curved, with a 
deep notch at its base, from which a well-defined groove runs down- 
ward. The lower jaw is sharp, its cutting edge is most concave near 
the tip, below which it is nearly straight, sides covered with fine 
radiating lines; basal notch broad, shallow, angular; beyond the 
notch there is a broad, low angular tooth. The surface of the fleshy 
palate is covered with low rounded verrucae. The odontophore is 
broad, with sharp, pale amber-colored teeth, which agree well with 
those of the original specimen (Plate XXI, figures 3-7) ; outside of 
the lateral teeth there is a narrow, raised, chitinous ridge, apparently 
not divisible into plates. 

Another specimen, consisting of the buccal mass and jaws, but 
without the odontophore, was presented to the TJ. S. Fish Comrais- 



288 



A. M Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



sion (lot 797) by Captain Chas. Anderson and crew of the schooner 
" Alice G. Wunson," of Gloucester, Mass. 

The jaws of this were slightly larger than in the one just de- 
scribed. They agree well in nearly every respect, but the notch at 
the base of the lower mandible is narrower and the tooth beyond it 
broad and rounded. 

Measurements of jaws, in millimeters. 



Number of Lot. 


810 


797 


Upper jaw, tip to bottom of notch, . . 


12 
9 
38 
11 
11 

31 
15 
5-5 


13 


Transverse breadth, at notches, . ._ . . 


10 


Tip to end of frontal lamina, . . . 


41 


Lower jaw, tip to bottom of notch, 


13 


Tip to notch of mentum, 


14 


Tip to ventral end of gular lamina, 


25 


Mentum to inner end of lateral alse, 


36 


Breadth of lateral alse, 


15 


Breadth of odontophore, across face, . 









A fifth specimen, received in lot 879, Oct., 1880, consists of two 
of the sessile arms, but the suckers have lost their horny rings, so 
that the identification cannot be very positive. The largest arm, 
which is not quite entire, is 255'""' long, and 23""" in diameter, at the 
larger end. It was taken from the stomach of a cod, on the Grand 
Banks, and presented to the U. S. Fish Commission by the Captain 
and crew of the schooner " Otis P. Lord." 









Specimens 


Examined. 






Lot. 


Locality. 


Fath. 


When rec'd. 


Name of vesseL 


Received from. 


Specimens. 


810 
797 
879 


C. Sable, N. S. 
Sable I. Bank 
G eorge's Bank 
E. slope G.'sB. 
Grand Banks 


Beach. 
280-300 
Cod stom. 
God stom. 
Cod stom. 


Sept., 1878. 
Aug., 1880. 
Aug., 1880. 
Oct., 1880. 


A. H. Johnson 
Sultana 
Al. G-. Wunson 
Otis P. Lord 


HalifaxMus'm 
U.S. Pish Com. 

(I 
11 


1, entire. 
1, jaws, etc. 
1, jaws & arm. 
1, jaws. 
I, arms. 



Sthenoteuthis Bartramii Verrill. 

Loligo sagittatus (pars) Lamarck, 1799; Anim. sans Vert., vii, p. 665. 
Loligo Bartramii Lesneur, Journ. Phil. Acad., I, vol. ii, p. 90, plate 7, 1821. 

Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat., xxvii, p. 141, 1823. 
Loligo sagittatus Blainv., Diet. Sci., Nat., xxvii, p. 140. 

Ommastrephes Bartra,mii D'Orb., Voy. Amer. Merid., Moll., p, 55, 1838 (t. Gray) ; 
Ceph. Acetab., pi. 2, figs. 11-20. 

G-ray, Catal. Moll. Brit. Mus., Ceplial. Antep., p. 62, 1849. 

Verrill, Invert. Vineyard Sound, etc., p. 341 [635], 1874 [non Binney, in Gould, 
Invert. Mass.) 

Tryou, Man. Conch., i, p. 180, pi. 80, figs. 361, 362 (from D'Orb.). 



A. E. Verrlll — North American Cephalopods. 289 

Sthenotenthis Bartramii Verriii (continued). 

Sthenoteuthis Bartramii Verrill, this volume, p. 223, Feb., 1880; Amer. Journ. 

Sci., xix, p. 289, Apr., 1880. 
Ommatostrephes Bartramii Steenstrup, Oversigt Kongl. D. Vidensk. Selsk. For- 

handl, 1880, (received Aug.), auth. sep. copy, p. 9, fig. 2, p. 11. fig. 3, p. 19. 

Body cylindrical, elongated, slender, tapering but little in front of 
the fin ; anterior edge of mantle with a very slight, median dorsal 
angle. Caudal fin short and transversely rhomboidal, with the outer 
angles acute, posterior angle obtuse, and the front edges rounded 
and projecting forward beyond the insertion. Length of fin (from 
insertion) to its breadth, as ' : 2 ; length of fin to mantle, as 1 : 2*80, 
in a young female specimen with the body 3 "25 inches long. Head 
short, as broad as the body ; eye-opening angular, higher than long, 
with a narrow oblique sinus. Nuchal frills nearly as in O. illecebrosa, 
consisting of a low, transverse, undulated ridge extending around both 
sides to the dorsal line, and with three raised longitudinal mem- 
branes on each side. Siphon large, sunken in a deep pit ; anterior 
border of the pit with a series of 6 to 12 or more (variable with age), 
small and short furrows, which extend inward only a short distance 
from the edge. Arms rather short, not very unequal ; the dorsal 
ones are a little the shortest and smallest ; the third pair are the 
longest, the second and fourth pairs are intermediate in length, and 
nearly equal ; the arms of the second pair are furnished with a well- 
developed membrane along the lower outer angle, and with a thin 
marginal membrane of moderate width along the inner angles, out- 
side the suckers, that on the lower side extending beyond the 
suckers. Those of the third pair are compressed, with a well-devel- 
oped membranous keel on the median outer edge, beyond the basal 
portion ; on the lower inner angle there is a broad, thin, marginal mem- 
brane, extending beyond the suckers, and a narrow one on the upper 
side ; the dorsal and ventral arms have narrow marginal membranes. 
Suckers of the dorsal and lateral arms furnished with horny rings 
which have the edge divided into small, acute-triangular teeth, 
largest on the outer side ; on the ventral arms the suckers are 
smaller, those on the proximal half of the arm having smooth-edged 
rings, while those on the distal portion are sharply toothed on the 
outer edge. Tentacular arms slender and moderately elongated, 
with distinctly broader clubs, which are keeled on the back, side and 
furnished with a thin marginal membrane on each edge. The suckers 
consist of two median alternating rows of larger oblique, dentate 
suckers, of which seven to nine in each row are decidedly largest ; 



290 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

alternating witli these, on each margin there is a row of smaller, 
more oblique, sharply denticulate, marginal suckers; distal nar- 
rowed face of the club covered with four rows of minute crowded 
suckers, and "a small cluster at the tip ; the proximal part of the club 
has an irregular group of few, small, denticulate suckers, beyond 
which, extending down on the upper margin of the arm, is a row of 
about five or six small, smooth-edged, connective suckers, alternating 
with small round tubercles, of corresponding size ; along the lower 
edge of the arm, for about the same distance, there is a I'ow of more 
minute pedicelled suckei'S. The horny rings of the larger median 
suckers are oblique, and the edge is divided into many small slender 
teeth, longer on the outer margin ; the teeth of the marginal suckers 
are similar, but more unequal and more incurved. 

Specimens in alcohol generally show a distinct, dark purplish 
brown dorsal stripe, where the chromatophores are very much 
crowded. 

Total length to tips of lateral arms, 121"'"^; tail to base of arms, 
93 ; body, 82 ; length of caudal fin, to insertion, 29 ; its breadth, 
58; diameter of body, 16 ; length of tentacular arms, 48"'™. Young. 

Middle Atlantic and West Indies ; common in the region of the 
Gulf Sti-eam. 

This is an exceedingly active species, swimming with great veloc- 
ity, and not rarely leaping so high out of the water as to fall on the 
decks of vessels. On this account it has been called the '■''flying 
sgicid,'''' by sailors. 

It is a more slender species than 0. illecebrosa, with a shorter fin, 
and it has but four rows of small suckers on the distal part of the 
club, instead of eight. The most important differences, of generic 
value, are the presence of connective suckers and tubercles on the ten- 
tacular arms, and the great development of the marginal membranes 
on the lateral arms. The grooves in the siphon-pit are of compara- 
tively little importance. 

GonatUS Gray. 
Gonatus Gray, Catalogue Mollusca Brit. Mus., i, Cephal. Antep., p. 67, 1849, (char- 
acters inaccurate.) 
Body slender, tapering ; caudal fins short, broad, united posteriorly. 
Pen narrow anteriorly ; thin and lanceolate posteriorly, with a termi- 
nal, hood-like expansion. Sessile arms with four rows of small, pedi- 
cellated suckers, those of the two median rows larger, with a horny 
ring, having a single large hooked claw on the outer edge ; outer 



A. E. Verrill — JSforth American Gephalopods. 291 

suckers with larger pedicels, the horny ring with several small denti- 
cles. All the suckers have a circle of rainiite scales or plates around, 
the aperture. Tentacles long and slender, the terminal part dilated 
into a narrow club, with a membranous keel ; the club is covered 
with minute denticulated suckers, like the outer ones of the sessile 
arms; smaller suckers extend for some distance along the arm; cen- 
ter of the club, with one or two larger suckers, resembling the median 
ones of the sessile arms, their horny rings having a small aperture, 
and bearing, on the outside, a large claw-like hook. 

Gray overlooked the free eyelids in this genus, and on that 
account placed it with Loligo. 

Gonatus Fabricii Verriii. 

Se^ia loligo Fabricius, Fauna Groenlandica, p. 358, 1780, (good description). 
Onychoteuthis Fabricii Lichtenstein, Isis, xix, 1818, (t. Gray). 

Moller, Kroyer's Tidss., iv, p. 76, 1842. 
Loligo Fabricii Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat., xxvii, p. 138, 1823. 
Onychoteuthis? amoena Moller, Ind. Moll. Gronl., Kroyer's Tidss., iv, p. 76, 1842, 

(young.) 
Gronatus amoena Gray, Catal. Moll. Brit. Mus., i. Cephal. Antep., p. 68, 1849. 
Gonata,s amoenus G. 0. Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norvegise, p. 336, pi. 31, figs. 1-15 
(excellent); pi. xvii, fig. 2 (dentition), 1878. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., i, p. 168, pi. 73, fig. 290, (descr. from Gray, fig. from H. & A. 

Adams, Genera). 
Verrill, Proc. Nat. Mus., ui, p. 362, 1880. 

Plate XLV, figures 1-1&, 2-2d. 

Body small, elongated, rather slender, tapering backward ; front 
dorsal edge of mantle extending forward in a blunt lobe or angle. 
Caudal fin very short, but broad, nearly twice as broad as long, the 
front edges extending forward beyond the insertion, as rounded 
lobes, lateral angles subacute, posterior angle obtuse. Arms stout and 
rather long, the dorsal and ventral pairs stouter than the lateral. 
All the arms bear four rows of small suckers ; those of the two 
median rows (2c, 2d) are larger than the outer ones, with shorter 
pedicels, and the very oblique horny ring, having a small opening, is 
developed into a single, large, hooked tooth on the outer side ; around 
the inner side of the aperture there is a partial circle of small flat 
scales, in several rows. The suckers of the outer rows (2a, 2b) are 
about two-thirds as large, with longer and more slender pedicels, and 
with lateral apertures ; the horny ring has about five acute-triangular 
teeth on the outer margin, and there are several rows of small scales 
forming a broad circle entirely around the aperture. The tentacular 

TR.4NS. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 36 January, 1881, 



2d2 A, M Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

arms are long and slendei-, with broader clubs, which bear a large 
number of minute suckers, much like the outer ones of the arras, 
arranged in many crowded rows, some of which extend beyond the 
club along the arm ; in the middle (fig. \b) there is usually one or two 
larger suckers (absent in our specimen) in which the horny ring has a 
small aperture and is developed into a large hook-shaped claw, on one 
side, and a complete circle of small plates surrounds the horny ring. 

Pen, thin and delicate, narrow anteriorly, with slender lateral ribs ; 
posteriorly, for more than half the whole length, expanded into a 
thin lanceolate form ; posterior tip laterally dilated, with the edges 
involute (fig. 1). 

A young specimen of this species, in nearly perfect preservation, 
was recently presented to the United States Fish Commission by 
Capt. William Demsey and crew, of the schooner " Clara F. Friend". 
It was taken from the stomach of a cod, oflT Seal Island, Nova Scotia. 

Greenland (Fabricius, Moller). Porsangerfjord, northern coast of 
Norway (G. O. Sars), Coast of Finmark, in stomach of "coal-fish," 
abundant (G. O. Sars, Norwegian Exp. of 1878). 

D'Orbigny, Gray, and other writers have erroneously referred the 
Onychoteuthis Fabricii (based on the Sepia loligo of Fabricius) to 
0. Banksii. The detailed Latin description given by Fabricius 
applies perfectly to the present species, and not at all to O. Ba7iksii. 
He describes the four rows of suckers on the short arms ; the small 
suckers and two large central hooks on the tentacles ; the short 
caudal fin, etc. 

Chiloteuthis, gen. nov. 

Allied to Enoploteitthis, Lestoteuthis and Abralia, but with a more 
complicated armature than either of these genera. Sessile arms with 
sharp incurved claws, arranged in four rows on the ventral arms, and 
in two rows on the other arms, (distal portions have lost their arma- 
ture). Tentacular arms long, with broad clubs, strongly keeled ex- 
ternally, and with series of convective suckers and tubercles extend- 
ing for some distance along the inner surface of the arms. Tentacu- 
lar clvib provided with a marginal row of connective suckers, alter- 
nating with tubercles, along one margin ; with a central row of une- 
qual hooks, some of them very large ; with submedian groups of 
small, slender-pedicelled suckers (or hooks) ; with marginal series of 
small suckers ; and with several rows of small suckers covering the 
prolonged distal portion of the face. Connective cartilages on the 
base of the siphon, simple, long-ovate ; the corresponding processes 
of the mantle are simple longitudinal ridges. The caudal fin. pen, 
and many other parts are destroyed. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods, 293 

Chiloteuthis rapax, ap. nov. 

Plate XLIX, figures 1-1/. 

A specimen of this remarkable squid, in very bad condition, was 
taken from the stomach of a tish, trawled at station 893, in 372 
fathoms, about 100 miles south of Newport, R. I. It was accompanied 
by a specimen of Ommastrephes illecebrosa, in a similar condition. It 
had lost its pen, its epidermis, and most of the horny hooks and 
sucker-rings ; the head was detached from the body and the caudal 
fin was nearly destroyed ; the eye-lids were gone, but the eye-balls 
remained. The description must, therefore, remain imperfect till 
other specimens can be obtained. 

The body was rather short and thick, tapering rapidly backward. 
The caudal tin appears to have been short-rhomboidal, but this is un- 
certain. The siphon is large, with an internal valve. The connective 
cartilages (fig. \e) on the sides of the base of the siphon are long-ovate, 
with the posterior end widest and rounded. The corresponding car- 
tilages on the inside of the mantle are simple longitudinal ridges. 
Head large, with very large eyes ; pupils round. The arms are long 
and taper to slender tips ; the dorsal ones are smaller and shorter than 
the others ; the lateral and ventral pairs are nearly equal in length, 
and about as long as the mantle ; the ventral arms are somewhat more 
slender than the lateral ones. All the arms appear to have borne 
slender-pedicelled claws or hooks with strongly incurved, horny points, 
but only the fleshy parts of these are left, in most cases, and the tips 
of the arms are bare. On the ventral arms these hooks were smaller, 
and in four rows ; the fleshy portion of these consists of a small 
rounded head, with lateral lobes, running up, on one side, into an in- 
curved beak, so that the shape is somewhat like a bird's head. On 
the other arms the claws were in two rows only, but they were much 
larger ; in a few cases, on the lateral arms, the horny claws are left. 
These are strongly compressed and deeply imbedded in the muscular 
sheath, only the sharp, incurved point projecting (figs. Ic, It?). 

The tentacular-arms (fig. 1) are long and strong, their length being 
more than twice that of the sessile arms. The club is rather stout, long, 
decidedly expanded, and has an elevated, crest-like keel on the distal 
half of its dorsal surface ; this keel rises abruptly at its origin, and is 
colored on the outer side, but white on the face next to the inner 
surface of the club. The club is broadest near its base, the distal 
third is narrow and the tip rounded. The armature is remarkable : in 
the middle line there is a row of six medium sized hooks (fig. 1, a"), 
followed by two much larger ones (fig. l,a' a), situated near the mid- 



294 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

die; these have lost their horny claws; series of minute, slender-pedi- 
celled suckers run along the club, either side of the median line, and 
beyond the large hooks these rows unite and entirely cover the face of 
the distal third of the club (fig. 1, d), there forming about eight rows ; 
at the tip there is a circular group of minute suckers {d') ; toward the 
base of the club the lower side is expanded and bears a row of five 
peculiar suckers (fig. 1, e), having a marginal series of slender, 
minute, incurved spinules ; these suckers have very thick basal pro- 
cesses, which are appressed and directed toward the central line of the 
club, bearing the suckers on their inner ends, attached by short pedi- 
cels ; round connective tubercles alternate with these suckers, in the 
same row ; beyond these there is a triangular marginal group of 
slender-pedicelled suckers (c), of about the same size; other rows of 
minute pedicelled suckers (or hooks) occupied the sub-median area, 
between the marginal ones and the central line, which is indicated by 
a strong white cord. The opposite margin of the club appears to have 
borne several rows of small suckers, but this part is badly injured. A 
band of minute papillae (e'), apparently the remnants of suckers and 
alternating connective tubercles, extends downward for more than 
half the length of the tentacular-arm ; at first this band is like a 
continuation of the connective suckers and tubercles on the margin 
of the club, and the papillae are apparently in a single row, while the 
surface near them is crossed by fine transverse grooves or furrows ; 
but farther down the arms there may have been two or more rows of 
suckers, which have been destroyed. 

The beak (fig. 1 /) is somewhat compressed, with very acute man- 
dibles. The upper mandible has the point long and regularly 
incurved, with the cutting edge regularly arched, without a basal 
notch, and forming, with the anterior edge, an obtuse angle. Lower 
mandible, with a strongly incurved tip and regularly concave cutting 
edge, having no basal notch, and only a slight tooth on the anterior 
border, which forms a very obtuse angle with the cutting edge. 

Color mostly gone, but where still remaining, as on the back of 
the tentacular club, it consists of minute purple chromatophores ; 
inner surface of sessile arms purplish brown. 
Measurements in millimeters. 



Length of body 78 

Length of dorsal arms 58 

Length of 2d pair of arms 86 

Length of 3d pair of arms 87 

Length of ventral arms 85 

Length of tentacular arms 225 

Length of club 29 



Breadth of club 7 

Breadth of tentacular arms - 5 

Breadth of lateral arms, at base 6 

Breadth of dorsal arms 5 

Diameter of eye-ball 19 

Length of connec. cartilages on siphon 14 

Breadth of the same 4 



A. E. Yerrill — North American Cephalopods. 295 

CalliteuthiS YerriU. 
Amer. Journ. Sci., xx, p. 393, for Nov., 1880 (published Oct. 25); Proc. Nat. Mus., 
iii, p. 362, 1880. 

Body short, tapering to a small free tip; fins small, united behind 
the tip of tlie body. Siphon united to the head by a pair of dorsal 
bands; not sunken in a furrow; an internal valve. Mantle united to 
the sides of the siphon by simple, linear, longitudinal lateral ridges, 
corresponding with connective cartilages on the sides of the siphon, 
which are long-ovate, with a raised margin all around. A dorsal 
elongated connective cartilage on the neck, opposite the pen. Arms 
long, not webbed ; suckers in two rows, largest on the middle of the 
lateral and dorsal arms ; horny rings of suckers smooth on most of 
the suckers, simply dentate on the distal ones. Eyes large, with 
rounded openings and thin, free lids. Buccal membrane simple, sack- 
like, with seven connective bridles. Internal anatomy of the female 
similar to that of Ommastrephes. Oviducts and nidamental glands 
symmetrically developed on the two sides. Oviducts opening in front 
of the bases of the gills, the openings simple, long, narrow, oblique. 
Two long, ligulate nidamental glands, with acute anterior ends, lie, 
side by side, and a little apart, on the middle of the visceral mass, 
behind and over the heart; each of these consists of two halves, 
folded together, and covered on the inner surface with fine transverse 
laminfB ; the space between them opens along the outer edge. 

CalliteuthiS reversa Verriii. 

Amer. Journ. Sci., xx, p. 393, Nov., 1880 ; Proc. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 362, Dec, 1880, 
Plate XL VI, figures 1-16. 

Body rather short, tapering backw^ard, subacute posteriorly; front 
edge of mantle advancing somewhat in the middle, and forming an 
obtuse angle ; considerably emarginate beneath. Caudal fin small, 
short, thin, each half nearly semicircular, attached subdoi-sally, pos- 
terior end emarginate and free from the tip of the body, but not ex- 
tending much beyond it. Head large, flattened above. Eyes very 
large, with simple, thin, free, circular lids, without any sinus. Open- 
ings of the ears, behind the eyes, minute, with a small, erect, clavate, 
fleshy process of the skin. Arms long, tapering, equal to the length 
of head and body combined ; the lateral pairs are equal ; the dorsal 
and ventral nearly equal, somewhat shorter than laterals; suckers 
deeper than broad, well rounded, laterally attached by slender pedi- 
cels ; horny rings with smooth, circular, thin edges, except on the 



296 A. E. Verrill — JSTorth American CepJialopods. 

small suckers, toward the tips of the arms, in which the outer edge 
is divided into a number of small, narrow, blunt teeth. On the ven- 
tral arms, the suckers are much smaller. Basal web rudimentary ; a 
narrow, thin, simple membrane along each side, outside the suckers. 
Tentacular arms rather slender, compressed, smooth at base, the ends 
absent. Color reddish brown. The ventral surface of the body, 
head, and arms is more ornamented than the dorsal surface, being 
covered with large, rounded verrucge, their center or anterior half 
pale, the border, or posterior half, dark purplish brown; upper sur- 
face of body with much fewer and smaller scattered verrucse; a cir- 
cle of the same around the eyes; inner surfaces of sessile arms and 
buccal membranes chocolate-brown, tentacular arms lighter; suck- 
ers pale yellow with a light brown band. Caudal fin white, translu- 
cent. Iris, in the preserved specimen, brown. Gills with the free 
edge brown, and a brown line on the outer edges of all the laminae. 

Total length, to end of lateral arms, 133™"', to base of arms, GV"""" ; 
mantle, 51™'"; of fin, 17"""; breadth of fins, 24™™; of body, 20™'"; 
diameter of eye-ball, 16™™; length of dorsal arms, 58'"™; of second 
pair, 67™"'; of third pair, 68™™; of ventral pair, 60™™; breadth of 
dorsal arms at base, 5'"™ ; of lateral, 6™™ ; diameter of largest suck- 
ers, 1-2™™. 

Dredged by the steamer " Fish Hawk," of the IT. S. Fish Commis- 
sion, at Station 894, about 100 miles south of Newport, R. I, N. Lat. 
39° 53' ; W. Long. 70° 58' 30", in 365 fathoms. 

MastigOteuthiS Verrill. 
Bulletin Mus. Comp. ZooL, vi, 1881. 

Body elongated, tapering to a point, confluent with the caudal fin 
posteriorly. Caudal fin very large and broad, rhomboid al, occupy- 
ino- about half the length of the body. Mantle fastened to the base 
of the siphon by an ovate, ear-shaped, elevated cartilage, on each 
side, fittinsi: into corresponding deep, circumscribed pits on the base 
of the siphon. Siphon with a bilabiate aperture, an internal valve, 
and a pair of dorsal bridles. Eyes large, with round pupils; lids 
free, thin, apparently with a very small anterior sinus. Arms very 
unequal, the ventral ones much the longest. Suckers small, in two 
regular rows. Tentacular arms long and round, tapering to the tips, 
shaped like a whip-lash, without any distinct club ; the distal portion 
is covered nearly all around with exceedingly numerous and minute 
suckers, which leave only a very narrow naked line along the out- 
side. Pen narrow and bicostate anteriorly, very slender in the mid- 



A. E. Yerritl — North American Cephalopoda. 20'/ 

die; posteriorly much larger, with a long tubular cone. This re- 
markable genus differs widely from all others hitherto described in 
the character of the tentacular arms and suckers. This, with the 
great size of the caudal tin, gives a very peculiar aspect to the species. 

Mastigoteuthis Agassizii Verriii. 

BuUetin Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. vi, pl.'l, fig. 1 ; pi. 2, figs. 2, 3-3^, 1881. 

Plate XLVIII. Plate XLIX, figures 2, S-S^r. 
Body elongated, round anteriorly; posteriorly tapering rapidly to 
the slender, acute, terminal portion, which is confluent with the cau- 
dal fin, to the tip. Front dorsal edge of mantle emarginate in the 
middle. Caudal fin very large and broad, transversely rhomboidal, 
obtuse posteriorly, its length, from origin to tip, about equal to half 
the combined length of the head and body. Eyes large, with thin 
lids, which appear to have had a distinct but very small sinus in 
front; pupils circular; iris brown, in alcohol. Sessile arras very une- 
qual ; ventral arms much larger and longer than the others, about 
equal to length of head and body ; dorsal arms very small, scarcely 
one-third the length of the ventral pair; two lateral pairs nearly 
equal, decidedly longer and stouter than the dorsal pair. A delicate 
thin, marginal membrane extends along the arras, outside the rows 
of suckers, to the slender tips. Suckers small, in two regular rows 
on all the arms, subglobular, with small oblique apertures, surrounded 
by small horny rings, which have a nearly entire margin, and by sev- 
eral series of minute plates (Plate XLIX, fig. 3^). 

Basal web, between the arms, very small. In the smaller speci- 
men, which is a male, the right ventral ai'm is longer than the left, 
and the tip appears to have been flattened, and the marginal mem- 
branes seera to have been wider, with the edges infolded, so as to 
form a sort of fuiTow on the outer side, but the suckers are mostly 
gone, and it is too rauch injured to be accurately described. Ten- 
tacular arms long, more than twice the combined length of the head 
and body, slender, round, gradually tapering to the tip, like a whip- 
lash, the distal half of their length covered with very numerous, 
crowded, rainute, pedicelled suckers (fig. 3f?), which cover nearly the 
entire surface along the terrainal portion, leaving only a narrow naked 
line along the back, but farther from the tip this naked space becomes 
gradually wider and the band of suckers narrower, and after these 
crowded bands of suckers cease, scattered suckers, placed mostly two 
by two, extend for some distance along the proximal part of the arms. 
The suckers of the tentacular arras are so small that their form can- 



298 



A. M Verrill — North American Gephalopods. 



not be seen with the naked eye ; they at-e deep, cup-shaped, with a 
small circular aperture, supported by a horny rim, which is often 
armed with two or three sharp teeth on one side (fig. 3e). 

Color of body and arms, so far as preserved, in alcohol, deep 
brownish orange ; on the upper side of the back and caudal fin the 
color is better preserved, and shows small, ocellated, circular spots of 
orange-brown, with an inner circle of whitish, and a central spot of 
purplish brown. Similar spots also exist on the head and arms, and 
also on the lower side of the body, where the color is best preserved. 

A considerable amount of a bright orange oily fluid, insoluble in 
alcohol, exuded from the viscera. Examined by means of the spectro- 
scope this fluid absorbed part of the green, all of the blue, and most 
of the violet rays. The stomach contained fragments of small Crus- 
tacea. The pen is pale yellow, thin, and slender anteriorly, with two 
sublateral costae, and narrow delicate margins outside the costse ; in 
the middle it becomes still thinner and narrower, with the margin 
inrolled ; beyond, the mai'gins become much wider and then unite 
together ventrally, forming a long, hollow, conical portion, extend- 
ing to the acute posterior tip ; this portion is not so broad as deep, 
and has a slight dorsal keel and ventral groove. 

Measurements in millimeters. 



Total length to end of sessile arms 

Head and body combined 

Length of body 

Length of caudal fin, from origin.. 

Breadth of caudal fin 

Breadth of body 

Length of dorsal arms . . 

Length of 2d pair of arms 

Length of 3d pair of arms 

Length of ventral arms 

Length of tentacular arms 

Breadth of dorsal arms, at base 

Breadth of ventral arms 

Breadth of tentacular arms 

Diameter of eye 

Length of pen 

Breadth of pen anteriorly 

Breadth of pen posteriorly 

Depth of pen posteriorly 




198 
2-25 
2-50 

4-50 



Specimens examined. 



6 

z 


Locality, 


Fath. 


When 
Rec'd. 


Name of 
Vessel. 


Rec'd from 


Spec. 
No. Sex. 


24 
25 


cccxxv. "N.L. 33°25'20"W.Lg. 76° 
cccxxviii.N.L. 3J°28'25'\V.Lg. 75"22'r)0" 


647 
1632 


1880 
1880 


Blake 
Blake 


Mus.Comp.Zool. 
Mus.Comp.Zool. 


1 S 
1 $ 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cepkalopods. 299 

Chiroteuthis Bonplandi D'Orb. (?). 

Loligojjsis Bonplandi Verany, Acad. Turin, ser. II, vol. i, PI. 5. (Specimen without 

tentacular arms, t. D'Orb.). 
Ohiroteuthis Bonjjlandi D'Orbigny, Ceplial. Acetab., p. 226. (Description compiled 

from Yerany). 
Verrill, Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. viii, PL 3, figs. 1-16, 1881. 

Plate XLVII, FiauRES \-U. 

A detached tentacular arm, belonging to a species of Chiroteuthis 
was taken by the U. S. Coast Survey steamer " Blake," in the sum- 
mer of 1880, at station ccciii, lat. 41° 34' 30", long. 65° 54' 30", in 
306 fathoms. 

The arm is very long and slender; the length being 780'""' (or over 
30 inches) ; its diameter being from 1*5 to 2™™, except near the base 
where it is 3""", and at the terminal club, which is 6""" broad, and 
54mm long. The arm is white, with purplish sj^ecks, and is generally 
roundish, except at the club; along the greater part of its length 
there is a row of rather distant sessile suckers, the distance between 
them being usually from 12-18"""; these suckers are larger than 
those of the club and have a nearly flat upper surface and no horny 
marginal rim. A row of small, simple, scattered pits, perhaps homo- 
logues of these suckers, extends up the back side of the club. These 
smooth suckers evidently serve to unite the tentacular arms together 
when used in concert. The club is stouter than the rest of the arm 
convex on both sides, and but little flattened ; on each side it is bor- 
dered by a well developed, marginal membrane, supported by a series 
of transverse, thickened, but flat, tapering, acute, muscular processes 
with their ends projecting beyond the edge of the membrane, as digit- 
ations ; on the distal half of the club, these are separated by spaces 
greater than their breadth, but on the proximal portion they sub- 
divide into two or three parts, which become crowded close together 
showing only narrow intervals or merely a groove between them. 
At the tip of the arm there is a thick, ovate, dark purple, spoon - 
shaped, hollow organ, about 4"'"' long, witli its opening on the back 
side of the arm. This so strongly resembles the spoon-shaped organ 
of the hectocotylized arm of some Octopods, as to suggest the pos- 
sibility of a similar use, for sexual purposes. The suckers are crowded 
in 4 to 8 indistinct rows. Their pedicels are long and slender hav- 
ing beyond the middle a large, dark purple, fluted, swollen portion, 
beyond which the pedicel is more slender ; the cup of the sucker 
is small and deep, with a very oblique, oblong-ovate, lateral openino- • 
horny rim, not distinctly toothed (fig. \b). 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 37 February 1881. 



300 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

Histioteuthis Collinsii Verriii. 

Amer. Journ. Sci., xvii, p. 241, March, 1879; xix, p. 290, 1880. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., i, p. 166, 1879, (copied from preceding.) 
Yerrill, this vol., p. 234, Plate 22, Feb., 1879. 

Pl.\te XXIT. Plate XXVII, figures 3-5. Plate XXXVII, figure 6. 

Ill addition to the original specimen, figured and described in Part 
I of this article (see p. 234), another specimen, represented by the 
jaws alone, has been received by the U. S. Fish Commission, from 
the Gloucester fisheries. (Lot 843.) 

This was obtained on the Western Bank, ofi" Nova Scotia. 

Another beak was dredged by the " Fish Hawk," at station 893, 
south of Newport, E. I., in 3*72 fathoms. 

These jaws agree well in size and all other characters, with those 
of the original specimen (PI. XXVII, fig. 4). 

Family. — Desmoteuthid^ nov. 

For the reception of the genera, Desmoteuthis Y. and Taonius St., 
as defined below, I propose to establish this new family, which has 
hitherto been confounded with Gnmchidce and Loligopsidm. 

Body much elongated, pointed posteriorly ; caudal fin narrow, 
terminal, mantle united to neck by a dorsal and two lateral muscular 
commissures. Pen lance-shaped, as long as the mantle, with a long 
narrow shaft ; blade incurved or hooded posteriorly. Oesophagus 
and intestine very much elongated. Nidamental glands large, sym- 
metrical. Eyes large, protuberant ; lids free and simple. No 
auditory crests. Siphon large, with neither internal valve nor dorsal 
bridle. Arms with depressed suckers. Tentacular arms with a 
well-developed club, bearing suckers. 

Desmoteuthis, gen. nov. 

Taonius {pars) Steenstrup, 1861. 

Body very long, tapering backward to a long, slender, acute cau- 
dal portion. Caudal fin long, narrow, tapering to a long acute tip. 
Anterior edge of the mantle united directly to the head, on the dor- 
sal side, by a commissure, so that there is no free edge, medially, 
and the surface is continuous, as in Sepiola ; the dorsal commissure 
extends backward and diverges within the mantle; two additional 
muscular commissures unite the lateral inner surfaces of the mantle 
to the sides of the siphon. Eyes very large and px'ominent, with sim- 
ple cii'cular lids. No aquiferous pores. Siphon lai-ge and promi- 
nent, with neither valve nor dorsal bridles. Arms small and short, 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 301 

subequal, with a basal web and lateral membranes; suckers smallest 
on the ventral arms, and urceolate ; largest and flatish on the mid- 
dle of the lateral and dorsal arms ; feebly toothed. Pen extending 
the whole length of the body, very slender and of uniform width for 
more than half the length, then becoming broad-lanceolate, the term- 
inal portion having the edges involute, forming a long slender cone, 
into which the ovary extends. Nidamental glands large, symmetri- 
cally developed on the two sides. Gills small, situated in front of 
the middle of the body. 

The genus Taonius was proposed by Steenstrup to include this and 
T. pavo (Les. sp.), but he has never, to my knowledge, definitely de- 
fined the genus. As T. pavo appears to be generically distinct from 
the present genus, 1 propose to retain 2\(onms, with T. jicivo for its 
type. By many writers T. pavo has been placed in LoUgopsis, or 
Leachia. Steenstrup himself, formerly referred D. hyperhorea to 
Leachia. By Tryon, both have been referred back to Loligopsis. 

Loligopsis^ as defined by D'Orbigny, in 1839, included T. pavo, as 
well as the type of Leachia, but he referred Lamarck's original type 
of Loligopsis to the genus, as emended by him, only with doubt. 

It seems desirable, therefore, to explain this confusion, so far as 
possible. 

Loligopsis \-^2im?iYck,* 1812 and 1822, was based only on an im- 
perfect figure, made by Peron. of a small oceanic squid, which had 
lost its tentacular arms. The supposed character of having eight 
arms was, for him, tlie only basis for the genus, no others being men- 
tioned. The species [L. Peronii) was, however, described very 
briefly as a small squid with eight equal arms and two posterior, dis- 
tinct caudal fins, and it was compared to Sepiola. It has apparently 
not been rediscovered by later writers, unless L. cJivysojyJithalma 
D'Orb., be the same species, which is quite possible. The latter, as 
figured, is a small, short-hodiecl species, with distinct, separate, small, 
caudal fins, tohich are free from the end of the body ; its mantle- 
edge is also represented as free, dorsally. This evidently is a generic 
type distinct from Taonius and Desmoteuthis. Indeed, it probably 
will be found not to belong to the same family, when actually 
studied. Therefore it seems necessary to allow the name Loligopsis 
to remain connected with such small, short-bodied species, fi^r which, 
alone, it was originally used. The genus, in its original sense, cannot 
yet be regarded as fully established. 

*Extr. de Conrs de Zool, p. 123, 1812 (t. D'Orb.); Animaux sans vert., vii, p. 659, 
1822. 



302 A. M Verrill — North American Cephalopoda. 

Leachia Lesueur, 1821* {=Perothis (Escb.) Rathke, 1835), was also 
based on an imperfect figure of a small Pacific Ocean squid, which 
had likewise lost its tentacular arms. The only generic character 
given was, as in Lamarck's case, the presence of only eight arms, — a 
purelj^ fictitious character. The type of this genus was Leachia 
cyclvra Les. It has a more elongated body, slender posteriorly, 
with a more or less rounded caudal fin, the two sides of the fin com- 
pletely united together and to the posterior end of the body. The 
third pair of arms is much larger than the others. The anterior dor- 
sal edge of the mantle is represented as^/y-ee, in all the figures, but, 
according to D'Orbigny, there is an internal, dorsal commissure, and 
also two lateral ones. The visceral anatomy of one species of this 
group {L. guttata Grant), which D'Orbigny refers, probably cor- 
rectly, f to the original L. cyclura., is pretty well known, and is widely 
diflferent from that oiDesmotenthis (see PI. XXXIX, fig. 1), as well as 
from that of Taonius, so far as the latter is known. 

There can be no doubt whatever as to the generic distinctness of 
Leachia, if the anatomy be taken into account. (See the figures of 
Grant and D'Orbigny.) 

Taonius Steenstrup, 1861, (type T. pavo). This differs from the 
two preceding genera in its more elongated form, narrow caudal fin, 
etc. From Leachia and Lesmoteuthis it differs in the form of its 
pen. The dorsal edge of the mantle is represented and described 
as free by D'Orbigny. The anatomical characters are not known. 

Desmoteuthis hyperborea VerriJi. 

Leachia hyperborea Steenstrup, Kougelige Banske Vidensk. Selsk. Skrifter, 5 r., 

iv, p. 200, 1856 (sap. copies, p. 16). 
Taonius hyperboreus Steenst, Oversigt Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk., Forhandliu- 
ger, 1861, p. 83. 
Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci., xvii, p. 243, 1879; xix, p. 290, 1880. 
Loligopsis hyperboreus Tryon, op. cit., p. 162 (inaccurate translation, after Steen- 
strup). 
Plate XXVII, figubes 1, 2. Plate XXXIX, figure ] (anatomy). 
§ . Body very long, tapering gradually backward, and ending in 
a long, slender, acute tail ; mantle soft and flabby, with a capacious 
branchial cavity; anterior dorsal edge advancing somewhat in the 

* Journal Philad. Acad., ii, p. 89, pi. 2. 

f Tryon criticizes this determination, because Lesueur '' describes and figures a 
smooth species," while L. guttata has two rows of curious tubercles on the ventral side. 
But as Lesueur only described a figure of the dorsal surface, his objection to this identi- 
fication is absurd. 



A. E. Yerrtll — Isforth American Cephalopods. 303 

middle and directly united to the head, so as to leave no free edge 
medially, by a rather wide commissui-al band, the sides of which 
diverge as they extend backward within the mantle. Caudal fin 
long, narrow, lanceolate, narrowly acuminate to a very long, acute 
tip ; the anterior insertions are wide apart, and the anterior border 
is rounded. Head short and small, exclusive of the eyes, which are 
very large, globular, and prominent, their lower sides in contact 
beneath the head ; openings round, looking somewhat downward ; 
pupils large and round ; lids thin and simple. Siphon very lai-ge 
and prominent, extending forward between the eyes, but without a 
special groove ; dorsal surface firmly united to the head by a thick 
commissure, leaving about half the length free ; oj^ening large, 
without any valve. 

Arms comparatively small and short, none of them conijilete, in 
our specimen, except those of the 3d and 4th pairs, which are nearly 
equal in length, the ventral ones a little the shortest and most slen- 
der ; the dorsal and 2d pairs of arms have lost their distal portions, 
but the parts of the dorsal arms remaining correspond in size with 
the ventral ones ; and those of the 2d pair with the 3d pair. The 
arms are all united together by a thin, delicate basal web, which 
extends up some distance between the arms (farthest between the 
dorsal pair), and then runs along the sides of the arms, as broad, 
thin, marginal membranes, to the tips. Suckers of the ventral arms 
smaller and different in form from those of the others, all of them 
being urceolate, with narrow apertures, surrounded by a slightly 
enlarged border, and having small horny rings with the edge entire, 
or nearly so, on the proximal suckers, but on the smaller ones, 
toward the tip, with a few broad blunt teeth on the outer edge. On 
the dorsal and lateral arms the basal suckers are ventricose and 
urceolate, like those of the ventral arms, but along the middle por- 
tion of these arms the suckers become much larger, and have a 
broad shallow form, with wide apertures and expanded bases ; the 
horny rings of these larger suckers are divided into several broad, 
bluntly rounded teeth on the outer edge ; toward the tips of the 
arms the smaller suckers again become deeper, with more contracted 
apertures, and with a few more prominent denticles on the rings. 

Outer buccal membrane with seven obtuse angles, and united to 
the arms by eight bridles, or commissures, of which the upper one is 
double. Exposed part of the beak black ; mandibles very acute, 
strongly incurved. 

Pen very thin and narrow, and of nearly uniform width (4""") for 
more than half its length ; at about four-sevenths of its length, from 



304 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



the anterior end, it gradually expands laterally into a broad, very 
thin, lanceolate form, becoming, opposite the broadest part of the 
fin, 30'""^ wide, with very delicate lateral expansions and with a 
pretty strong dorsal keel ; farther back it tapers and is very acumi- 
nate, the lateral margins becoming involute, so as to form a very 
long, slender, acute, terminal, hollow cone, extending to the tip of 
the tail. The anterior eiKl is obtusely rounded and thin ; a short dis- 
tance from the anterior end there are two thin lateral processes, 
directed forward, to which the commissural muscles were attached. 

Color of entire body, siphon, and caudal fin, dark brown, thickly 
covered with large roundish unequal spots of darker brown, and. 
paler brown, intermixed ; head, eyes, arms, and web, dark brownish 
purple, with crowded chomatophores ; suckers yellowish. 

Total length, to end of lateral arms, 16 inches ; to dorsal edge of 
mantle, 13 ; length of head, 1 ; diameter of eye, 1 ; length of caudal 
fin, 5 ; its breadth, 1-80 inches.* 

Measurements in millimeters. 



Length to tip of lateral arms, 

Length to base of arms. 

Length to edge of mantle, above, 

Length of caudal fin, - 

Breadth of caudal fin, 

Diameter of body, 

Diameter of ej'e, 

Length of 3d pair of arms, 

Length of ventral arms, 

Diameter of largest suckers of lateral arms,. 

Length of pen, 

Of anterior linear portion, 

Of posterior lanceolate part, 

Breadth of anterior portion, ... 

Breadth of lanceolate part, .. 



A. S 



410 

354 

330 

127 

46 

57 

25 

56 

52 

3 

330 

180 

150 

3 

30 



210 

103 

18 

26 

63 

38 

5 



A. is the specimen described above ; B. is the specimen described by Steenstrup 
from Greenland. The latter had the dorsal arms 40'"" long ; 2d pair 50""" ; tentacular 
arms 68 and 70""" respectively. The larger size of the suckers of the latter may 
indicate that it was a male. 

Our specimen M'as taken near the northern edge of the Gulf 
Stream, W. long. 55°, by Thomas Lee, of the schooner " Wm. H. 
Oaks," Jan., 1879, and by him presented to the U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion. Baffin's Bay, Northern Greenland (Steenstrup). 



* Some of these measurements are slightly larger than those originally given. 
This is due to the fact that the specimen has been kept, since first received, in some- 
what weaker alcohol, and has become more relaxed in consequence of this, combined 
with repeated handhng. 



A. M Verrill — N'orth American Cephalopods. 005 

Notes on the Visceral Anatomy. 
Plate XXXIX, figure 1. 

The only specimen of this species obtained had the internal organs 
considerably injured, but the anatomy is so unlike that of the more 
common genera of squids, that it seemed to me desirable to figure 
such parts as are preserved. 

This specimen is a female and the large nidamental glands (cc', xx^ 
xx') are symmetrically developed, on the two sides ; these are swollen, 
voluminous organs, composed of great numbers of internal lamellte ; 
the anterior ones (a*') occupy the region around, and in front of the 
bases of the gills, extending forward and having an oblique, oblong 
opening [op, op') on the outside of the anterior ends ; the posterior 
ones [xx, xx') are behind the gills and cover the branchial auricles, 
the oblique, slit-like opening is on the outside of the posterior ends ; 
the gland on the left side [xx') was mutilated ; the posterior vena- 
cava, in front of r', passes through the center of the posterior gland 
[xx). The ovary [ov) is a very long organ, attached to the stomach 
[s) and to the sides of its long cjecal appendage; it extends far back- 
ward to near the tip of the tail, occupying the concavity of the pen 
[p) ; it consists of great nnmbers of small clustered folicles; con- 
nected with its anterior end, and attached to the stomach, there is a 
convoluted tube, probably an oviduct, not shown in the figure ; con- 
nected with the intestine, near its origin (between s and I), there is a 
firm, rounded organ (gizzard '?), with internal lamellae, opening into the 
intestine. The stomach was much mutilated, so that its foi'm could not 
be certainly made out; its cavity is occupied by niimerous longitudinal 
folds ; a very long, saccular caecal appendage, longitudinally plicated 
within, runs back, along the ovary, into the caudal cavity of the 
pen. The oesophagus had been destroyed. The intestine [I, h) is 
veiy long and slender, internally longitudinally plicated, and exter- 
nally covered along nearly its whole length, on one side, by close 
groups of small, glandular folicles [I, I) ; the posterior portion is 
closely attached to the ventral edge of the smooth, compressed, 
oblong-ovate liver [i), and the free, stout, anal end (A) is provided 
with two slender, tapering cirri. Ink-sac small, pyriform. 

The gills [g, g) are small and short, situated far forward, and con- 
nected to the ventricle of the heart [H), by long aft'erent vessels 
[bo)', the branchial auricles [ait, au) are rounded, without terminal cap- 
sules; the ventricle of the heart [H), as preserved, is small and four- 
lobed. The largest lobe directed foi-ward and passing into the anterior 
aorta. The condition of the specimen did not permit the circulation to 



306 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

he much studied. The two large, fusiform, cellular organs (?•', /•') are 
probably renal in nature ; their interior is filled with large, irregular 
cavities or lacunte, which appear to be connected with the posterior 
vente cavai {vc"). 

TaoniuS Steenstrup. 

Loligo {pars) Lesueiir, Journ. Philad. Acad., ii, p. 96, 1821. 
Loligo]}sis {pars) D'Orbigny, Ceph. Acetab., p. 320, {non Lamarck). 

Gray (pars), Catal. Moll. Brit. Mus., i, p. 39, 1849. 
Taonius {pars) Steenstrup, Oversigt Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Forh., 1861, pp. 
70, 85. 

This genus seems to bear about the same relation to Desmoteitthis 
that Rossia does to Sepiola. Its relations with Loligopsis and 
Leachia have ah'eady been discussed (pp. 301, 302). The body is 
short-pointed posteriorly. The caudal fin is long-cordate, but not 
slender pointed. The pen is lance-shaped, the anterior portion being 
long, narrow, of nearly uniform width ; posterior end broad-lanceolate, 
short-pointed posteriorly, and, according to the figures, without a 
cone at the tip. The anterior dorsal edge of the mantle is repre- 
sented as free externally, but there is a dorsal commissure within the 
mantle-cavity, and a lateral one on each side. Arms short, subequal ; 
suckers flat, denticulate ; those of the tentacles with sharp, incurved 
teeth. Eyes large, globular, prominent, lids free and simple. 

Siphon with neither valve, nor dorsal bridle. No external ears, 
nuchal crests, nor cephalic aquiferous pores. 

Taonius pavo Steenf3trup. 

Loligo pavo Lesiieur, Journal Acad. Nat. Science Philad., ii, p. 96, with a Plate, 1821. 
Loligopsis pa.vo Ferussac and D'Orb., Ceph. Acetab., p. 321, Calmars, PI. 6, figs. 1-4, 
(after Lesueur) : Loligopsis, PL 4, figs. 1-8 (details, origiual). 
Binney, in Gould, Invert. Mass., ed. II, p. 309, (but not the figure, PL 26). 
Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci., xix, p. 290, 1880. 

Tryon, Amer. Mar. Conch., p. 9, PI. 1, fig. 3 (after Lesueur) ; Man. Conch., i, p. 
163, PL 68, fig. 252, PI. 69, fig. 253, 1879 (descr. from Gray, figures from 
Lesueur and D'Orb.). 
Taonius pavo Steenst., Oversigt Kgl. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. Forh., 1861, pp. 70 
and 85. 

This species differs externally from the preceding in having a 
much shorter, obtuse, oblong-cordate, fin, instead of a long, slender, 
pointed one, and by its very distinct coloration. According to Les- 
ueur the general color is carmine-brown, the mantle, head, and arms 
" covered on every part with very large ocellations, which are con- 
nected together by smaller intermediate ones." Length of mantle, 
10 inches. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopocts. 307 

Sandy Bay, Mass. (Lesueur). Newfoundland (Steenstrup). Oif 
Madeira (D'Orbigny). 

No instance of the occurrence of this oceanic species on the New 
England coast has been recorded since the original specimen was 
described by Lesueur, in 1821. The circumstances connected with 
the history of his specimen are such as to render it not improbable 
that some interchange of labels had occurred in his case. Therefore, 
the New England habitat, for this species, needs contirmation. 

Lesueur's statement (loc. cit., p. 94) is that when at Sandy Bay, 
Mass. (on Cape Ann), in 1816, he saw a "great number" of squids 
("ioZ/^os") that had been taken by the fishermen for bait, and that : 
" The beautiful color with which they were ornamented, induced me 
to take a drawing of one immediately, but not then having leisure to 
complete it, I took a specimen with nie to finish the drawing at my 
leisure. But recently [in 1821] upon comparing this specimen with 
my drawing, I was much surprised to perceive that I had brought 
with me a very distinct species from that which I had observed [ 0. 
illecebrosus]. I mention this circumstance to explain the cause of the 
brevity of the following description [of 0. illecebrosus] taken from 
my drawing." The drawing was also inacciirate, for the same reason. 

LiOligO Lamarck, 1779. 
Loligo (pars) Lamarck, Syst. Anim. sans vert., p. 60, 1801. 
Fteroteuthis (sub-genus) Blainville, Man. Malac, p. 367, 1825. 
Loligo (restricted) D'Orbigny, Ceph. Acetab., p. 305, 1848. 

Body more or less elongated, tapering to a point behind ; anterior 
edge of mantle free dorsally, and prolonged into a lobe, covering the 
end of the pen. Caudal fin elongated-rhomboidal, united to the 
sides of the body to the tip. Mantle connected to the neck by a 
dorsal and two lateral connective cartilages; lateral cartilages of the 
mantle simple, longitudinal ridges ; corresponding cartilages, on the 
base of the siphon, irregularly ovate, with a median groove. Pen 
as long as the mantle, anteriorly narrow, with a central keel, and 
two lateral ridges ; posteriorly broad, thin, lanceolate, concave, but 
not involute. Head rather large ; eyes without lids, covered with 
transparent skin, pupil encroached upon dorsally by the iris ; a small 
pore in front of the eyes ; behind the eyes, on each side, there is an 
oblique transverse, and two longitudinal, erect, thin crests, in rela- 
tion with the ears. Siphon situated in a shallow groove, united to 
the head by two dorsal bridles, and furnished with an internal valve. 
Six buccal aquiferous pores, and a pair of branchial pores, one on 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 38 February, 1881, 



308 A. E. Verrlll — North American Cephalopods. 

each side, between the bases of the 3d and 4th pairs of arms. Buc- 
cal membrane with seven elongated points, covered on their inner 
surfaces with small suckers ; in the female with a special organ (PI. 
XXIX, fig, 4, s), below the beak, on the ventral side, for the attach- 
ment of the spermatophores. 

Sessile arms angular ; basal web rudimentary or none ; suckers in 
two rows, oblique, deep cup-shaped ; horny rings toothed on the 
broad side, and surrounded with a median ridge. Male with one of 
the ventral arms (usually the left) hectocotylized, near the tip, by an 
enlargement of the bases of the pedicels of the suckers and a decrease, 
or disappearance, of the cups. Tentacular arms long and strong, with 
an expanded club, provided with marginal membranes and a dorsal 
keel ; suckers, on the widest part, usually in four rows, those in the two 
central rows larger, broad urceolate ; smaller ones cover the proxi- 
mal and distal portions ; no connective suckers on the club or along 
the arm. 

Oviduct large, developed only on the left side. Nidamental 
glands large, in front of heart. Eggs in fusiform, gelatinous capsules, 
attached by one end, and usually radially united into large clusters. 

LoligO Pealei Lesueur. 

Typical form. 

Loligo PeaJei Lesueur, .Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., vol. ii, p. 92, Plate 8, 1821. 
Loligo Pealii Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat, xxvii, p. 144, 1823. 

Perussac and D'Orbigny, Ceph. Acetab.. p. 311, Calmars, PI. 11, figs. 1-5, PI. 20, 
figs. 17-21 (details). 

Gray {Pealii), Catal. Moll. Brit. Mus., i. p. 71, 1849. 

Binney in Gould's Invert. Mass., ed. 2, p. 514, PI. 25, figs. 339, 340, (figure errone- 
ously referred to 0. Bartramii). 

Verrill [Pealii), Report on Invert. Vineyard Sd., pp. 440, 635 (sep. copies, p. 341), 
PI. 20, figs. 102-105, 1877. 

Trj^on {Pealii), Man. Concli., i, p. 142, PI. 51, figs. 133-140, (figs, from Per. and 
D'Orb., and Dekay). 

Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci., iii, p. 281, 1872 ; Amer. Naturalist, viii, p. 170 (habits); 
Amer. Journ. Sci., xix, p. 292, 1880 (descr.). 
Loligo punctata Dekay, Nat. Hist. N. Y., Mollnsca, p. 3, PI. 1, fig. 1, 1843 (young). 

Binney, in Gould Invert. Mass., p. 513 (after Dekay). 

Tryon, Amer. Mar. Conch., p. 14, PI. 43, figs. 10, 11 (after Dekay). 

Variety^ borealis Verrill. 

Loligo Pealei. var. borealis Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci., xix, p. 292, 1880. 

Variety, pallida Verrill. 

Loligo pallida Verrill, Rep. Invert. Viney. Sd., in Rep. U. S. Com. Fish and Fish- 
eries, i, p. 635, [341], PI. 20, figs. 101, 101a, 1874. • 



A. M Verrill — Worth American Cephalopods. 309 

LiOligO Pealei Lesueur (contimied). 

Tryon, Man. Conch., p. 143, PI. 52, figs. 141, 142, (descr., and figs, copied from pre- 
ceding). 
Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci., xix, p. 292, 1880. 

Plate XXIX, figs. 1-4. Plate XXXVII, figs. 1-3 (pens). . Plate XXXIX, fig. 4 
(odontophore). Plate XL (anatomy). Plate XLI (anatomy and young). Plate 
XLV, FIGS. 3, 4 (young). 

Body rather elongated, more or less stout, according to state of 
distention or contraction,* tapering backward to a moderately acute 
posterior end, more acute in the male than in the female. Caudal 
fin long-rhomboidal, with the outer angles very obtusely rounded ; and 
varying, according to age, in the ratio of its length to its breadth, 
and greatly, also, in the proportion that its lengtli bears to that of 
the mantle.f The length of the caudal fin, in proportion to that of 
the body (mantle), although variable, normally increases with age, 
even after sexual maturity. In this species, with specimens having 
the mantle from 100 to 125""" long, the ratio of the fin to the mantle 
usually varies from 1 : 1-80 to 1 : 1*90 ; with the mantle 150 to 175"'"' 
long, the ratio usually becomes 1 : 1'65 to 1 : 1 '75 ; in the largest 
specimens, with the mantle, 260 to 400"'" long, the ratio varies from 
1 : 1-50 to 1 : 1-65, rarely becoming 1 : 1-75. The ratio of the breadth 
of the caudal fin to the length of the mantle, in the larger male 
specimens, ranges from 1:2-12 to 1:2*40, varying considerably 
according to the mode of preservation ; in the larger females it 
varies from 1 : 1-70 to 1 : 2-12. 

The anterior ventral edge of the mantle recedes, in front of the 
siphon, in a broad curve, leaving an obtuse angle at either side, oppo- 
site the lateral cartilages ; from these angles it again recedes, on the 
sides, in a concave line, and then projects considerably forward, form- 
ing a prominent, median, dorsal lobe, which gradually tapers from 
the base, and then rather suddenly narrows to a point, over the end 
of the pen ; the point, when in its normal position, reaches as far 

* The mantle, when the gill-cavity is distended with water, has a larger size than 
when the water is expelled by the contraction of its walls, which is usually the con- 
dition in which specimens die. Moreover, when the large stomach is distended with 
food, and when the ovary is distended, in the breeding season, with eggs, the form is 
stouter than usual. 

f This variation is largely independent of sex, and is due partly to the ordinary 
changes during growth; partly to the condition of the muscular tissues at the time of 
death ; and partly to the effects of the alcoliol in which they have been preserved. 
These latter causes, in the case of preserved specimens, more or less obscure the 
effects of growth in causing the proportions to change. 



310 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

forward as the posterior border of the eye, or even beyond it. Dorsal 
connective cartilage long, tapering backwards, with a ver}- prom- 
inent, broad, dorsal keel ; the anterior end is free and shaped like 
the end of the pen. Siphon large, rounded anteriorly, with a broad, 
bilabiate opening; lateral cartilages (PI. XL, fig. 1,/*) long and 
narrow, subacute anteriorly, posterior end with a thin, rounded, 
outer lobe ; median groove narrow. The connective cartilages of the 
mantle (fig. 1,./") are simple, longitudinal ridges, fading out grad- 
ually posteriorly. Head moderately large, usually narrower than 
the mantle ; smaller in the male than in the female ; eyes large ; 
nuchal crests (fig. 1, o/>) above the ear, formed by longer uppei', and 
shorter inferior, oblique, longitudinal membranes, the two united by 
a doubly curved, or V-shaped membrane, having its angle directed 
forward, the whole having a rude, W-shaped form. 

Arms large, stout, the three upper pairs successively longer ; the 
ventral ones a little shorter than the third pair, and a little longer 
than the second pair. All the arms have narrow, thin, marginal 
membranes, strengthened by strong, transverse, muscular ridges. 
The first and second pairs of arms are trapezoidal at base ; third pair 
stouter, compressed, with a keel on the middle of the outer side. 
Suckers in two regular rows on all the arms, deep, very oblique ; 
largest on the lateral arms ; those on the ventral arms are smaller, 
but otherwise similar. Horny rings yellowish, or brownish (white 
when fresh), strong ; on the larger proximal suckers the outer or 
higher side is divided into about six broad, flattened, incurved teeth, 
which are blunt, subtruncate, and sometimes even emarginate at tip, 
remainder of margin nearly even ; the smaller suckers, toward the 
tips of the arms, have the teeth longer, much more slender, and more 
acute. 

The tentacular arm (PI. XXIX, fig. 2) with fresh specimens, in full 
extension, may reach back nearly to the end of the body ; with pre- 
served specimens it seldom extends beyond the middle of the caudal 
fin • it is rather slender, compressed, and has a narrow, thin, mem- 
branous keel along the outer edge, which becomes wider at the club ; 
on the distal half of the club it is much wider and runs a little 
obliquely along the back part of the upper side, where it is usually 
folded down against the side, its inner surface being whitish. The 
club is rather broad and thick, with a wide, scalloped, marginal 
membrane along each edge ; these membranes are strengthened by 
transverse muscular ridges, which commence between the large cen- 
tral suckers and fork at the pedicels of the marginal ones. Along 



A. E. Verrill — JVorth American Cephalopods. 311 

the center of the chib there are two alternating rows of large, broad, 
depressed suckers, about seven in each, with a few smaller ones, of 
the same series, at both ends ; along each edge, alternating with the 
large suckers, there is a row of smaller and more oblique marginal 
suckers, about half as large. The proximal part of the club bears 
only a few small denticulated suckers ; the distal part bears a large 
number of small, sharply denticulated, pedicelled suckers, crowdedly 
arranged in four rows ; close to the tips of the arms about twenty of 
the small suckers have smooth rims and very short pedicels, but are 
still in four rows. The large suckers vary greatly in relative size, 
according to age, sex, season, and locality ; they are a little higher 
on one side than on the other, with a broad aperture, surrounded by 
a horny, marginal ring, which is divided all around into sharp, un- 
equal teeth, which are larger on the outer side (PI. XL, fig. 5) ; 
usually one minute, sharp tooth stands between two larger ones, and 
these sets of three stand between still larger and less acute ones ; 
the horny ring is surrounded by a wide, thick, soft, marginal mem- 
brane ; below tlie border, a groove surrounds the sucker, and below 
this there is a basal swelling, equalling or exceeding the margin in 
diameter. The smaller mai'ginal suckers (PI. XL, fig. 4a, 4i) have 
the aperture more oblique and the horny ring much wider on the 
outer side, with its outer, sharp, marginal teeth longer and more 
incurved ; usually these have the teeth alternately larger and smaller. 

The outer buccal membrane (Plate XXIX, fig. 4) is large, thin, with 
seven prominent, elongated, acute angles, all of which have a cluster 
of about ten to fifteen, small, pedicelled suckers, in two rows, on the 
inner surface (a, J, c, d). These suckers have horny rings, denticu- 
lated on one side. In the female there is a special thickened organ 
(s) in the form of a horse-shoe, on the inner ventral surface of the 
buccal membrane. This in the breeding season serves for the attach- 
ment of the spei-matophoT'es by the male. 

The muscular pharynx (fig. 4, e,/') containing the jaAVS can be pro- 
truded its whole length. The inner buccal membrane (/') or sheath 
enclosing the beak («i), has a prominent, thickened, radially-wrinkled 
and puckered anterior margin. On the ventral side the pharynx 
bears, externally, two thin chitinous plates, not connected with the 
jaws. The points and exposed edges of the beak are hard and black, 
becoming dark reddish brown farther back ; the alae, gular and pala- 
tine laminae are thin and pale yellowish or light amber-color, in alco- 
holic specimens. The upper mandible (PI. XXXIV, figs. 4, 4a, var. 
pallida) has a sharp, strongly-incurved point ; cutting edge regularly 



312 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

curved, with a triangular notch at its base, followed by a prominent 
triangular tooth on the alar edge, beyond which the edge is nearly 
straight, but recedes somewhat. Lower mandible with a sharply 
incurved point and sinuous cutting edges, which have a slight tooth 
below the middle and only a slight rounded notch at base, which 
passes gradually into the very oblique and receding alar edge. The 
bilobed palate is covered with a chitinous membrane which bears 
transparent, small, sharp, recurved denticles. 

Odontophore with pale amber-colored teeth, and thin transparent 
borders. The median teeth (PI. XXXIV, fig. 3 ; PI. XXXVII, fig. 
6, a; PI. XXXIX, fig. 4) are broad with a long acute median denticle, 
and a shorter curved and less acute lateral one, on each side ; the 
inner lateral teeth are short, strongly incurved, with a longer acute 
central denticle and a smaller outer one, and with the inner angle of 
the base slightly prominent ; the next to the outer lateral teeth 
(fig. 6, c) are much longer, broad, tapered, curved, aciite; the outer 
teeth (fig. 6, d) are longer, more slender, more curved, triquetral, and 
very acute with a large basal lobe. A row of thin, distinct, roundish 
scales (fig. 6, e) forms a border, outside the teeth. 

The pen is thin, translucent, pale yellowish, in fresh specimens, but 
brownish or amber-color in alcoholic specimens. It has a short, nar- 
row, anterior shaft and a long, very thin, lanceolate blade, which is 
concave beneath, especially posteriorly, for the edges curve down- 
ward, but are not involute ; the posterior tip is acute, slightly thick- 
ened and curved downward, so that the posterior end is shaped some- 
thing like the forward part of a shallow canoe. In the male the pen 
is relatively longer and the blade narrower than in the female. The 
extreme anterior end is thin and flexible, and rather abruptly pointed, 
being shaped like a pen ; the shaft is rather stiff", with a strong, regu- 
larly rounded keel, convex above and concave beneath; outside of 
the keel the marginal portion curves outward and then upward, so 
that its convex surface is below, and the edge slightly turns up. 
The shaft, with its central keel and marginal ridges, extends to the 
posterior tip of the pen, decreasing regularly in width beyond the 
commencement of the blade. The blade is at first very narrow, and 
o-radually increases in width ; it is marked by numerous slightly 
thickened ridges, which diverge from the central line as they extend 
backward ; the edges are very thin. 

In the larger males the proportion of the greatest breadth of the 
blade to the total length of the pen varies from 1 : 7-50 to 1 : 9'36. 
In the females it varies from 1 : 5*60 to 1 : 6-10, 



A. E. VerrlU — North American Cephalopods. 313 

The following description of the coloi's was made from a freshly- 
caught, adult, male specimen (1 G) ; taken in New Haven Harbor, 
May 18, 1880. 

Upper surfaces of the body, head and caudal fin thickly covered 
with rather large chromatophores, which are mostly rounded or 
nearly circular, except along the middle of the back, where they are 
more crowded and darker, and mostly have a long-elliptical form 
(perhaps accidental). 

The chromatophores, when expanded, are light red to dark lake- 
red, varying to purplish red and pink ; when contracted to small 
points, they become brownish purple. 

On the head, behind the middle of the eyes, and toward the mar- 
gin of the caudal fin, the spots are smaller and less numerous, the 
intervening bluish white ground-color showing more largely. Over 
most of the dorsal siirface the chromatophores are arranged more or 
less evidently in circular groups ; usually the central chromatophore 
is a large, round, dark purplish spot ; this is surrounded by a circular 
space of whitish ground-color ; and by a circle of roundish chromat- 
ophores, mostly of different shades of lake-red and pink, and a deeper 
lying circle of pale canary-yellow ones. On the lower side they are 
so thinly scattered that they leave much of the translucent bluish 
white ground-color visible between them ; along the median ventral 
line the spots are more numerous, producing a distinct median stripe. 
The caudal fin is clear bluish white beneath, and very translucent, 
becoming almost transparent near the margin. 

Exposed part of the siphon similar to the ventral surface of the 
body, but with the spots more sparse, and mostly disappearing near 
the margin and at the base ; lower side of the head, in front of the 
eyes, sparsely spotted. Outer and upper sides of the upper arms, 
and outer surfaces of the ventral pair similarly, but somewhat more 
densely, specked; both sides of the ventral arms and lower sides of 
the lateral arms pinkish white and unspotted. Tentacular arms pale 
translucent, bluish white, with the outer surface, except at base, 
rather thinly specked with small purplish chromatophores ; the inner 
surface and upper side of the tip and the suckers are translucent 
white ; rings of suckers white. 

On the inner surface of the dorsal and lateral arms, between the 
suckers, there are a few large chromatophores, and a double row of 
them runs out obliquely on the niusciilar thickenings of the mar- 
ginal membrane, alternating with the suckers, on each side ; suckers 
pure translucent, bluish white (becoming yellow or brown in alcohol). 



314 A. E. Verrill — North Atnerican Cephalopods. 

The pupils of the eyes are deep bluish black ; on the upper side 
they are encroached upon by a sinuous, downward extension of the 
iris, which is silvery or pearly white, with brilliant, green, opalescent 
reflections at the upper margin. 

Sexual differences. 

The sexes differ to a considerable extent, in proportions. If we 
compare specimens of equal length, the female will have the body 
relatively stouter and less tapered posteriorly than the male ; the 
head is decidedly larger;* the arms are longer; the suckers are 
usually distinctly larger, especially those of the tentacular arras. 
But if we compare specimens having the head and arms of equal 
size, the male will be found to have a decidedly longer, more slender 
and more tapered body, and a somewhat longer and narrower fin. 
(See table B, for comparative proportions.) 

In the adult male the circumference of the head to the mantle- 
length usually varies from 1 : 2-55 to 3*45, averaging about 1 : 3-10 ; 
in the female from 1 : 1*75 to 1 : 2*45, averaging about 1 : 2-25. 

The ratio of the breadth of the fin to the mantle-length, in the 
male, varies from 1 : 2*12 to 1 : 2'45, averaging about 1 : 2*25 ; in the 
female, from 1 : rVO to 1 : 2*12, averaging about 1 : 1'90. 

The ratio of the diameter of the largest tentacular suckers to the 
mantle-length varies, in the male, from 1 : 60 to 1 : 90, averaging 
about 1 : 65 ; in the female it varies from 1 : 36 to 1 : 54, averaging 
about 1 : 45. 

The proportion of the length of the dorsal arms to the mantle- 
length, in the male, averages about 1 : 3*50 ; in the female about 
1:2-75. 

The most marked effect of strong alcohol is to reduce the diameter 
of the body and the breadth of the caudal fin to a proportionally 
far greater extent than it does the length of the mantle and fin. 
Therefore, specimens that have been preserved in too strong alcohol 
often look like a different species, and the females often resemble the 
males, on account of their apparently longer and narrower fins and 
unnaturally slender bodies. 

The pen of the female is relatively broader and shorter than that 
of the male (see table A), 

* Some of the nominal European species of LoUgo, that have been based on the 
smaller size of the head, arms, and suckers are probably only the males of the common 
species. The sexual variations in this genus have apparently been very imperfectly 
understood by European writers generally. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopoda. 



315 



The best and most positive external characters for distingiiishing 
the sexes, are the hectocotylized condition of the left ventral arm of 
the male, near the tip (Plate XXIX, fig. 3^ 3^) ; and the presence, in 
the female, of a horse-shoe shaped sucker, or place for attachment of 
the spermatophores, on the inner buccal membrane, below the beak 
(fig. 4, s). These characters, however, are not present in the very 
young individuals, and in those with the mantle two or three inches 
long they appear only in a very rudimentary state.* 



A. — Sexual 


variations in the pen. 


{Measm 


•ements in inches). 






6 P. 


5 9V. 


3 10V 


SW. 


?E. 


?EE. 


?17V 


? An. 


Length of pen 

Length of shaft 

Length of blade 

Breadtli of shaft 

Breadth of blade 

Proportions : 
Greatest breadth to 

length, .1: 


10^50 

\-40 

9-10 

•50 

1^40 

^50 


10^20 

2^10 

8^10 

•35 

1-15 

8-86 


9^55 
2^20 
735 
•40 
1-02 

9-3P 


8^50 

2^00 

6-50 

•40 

•98 

8-67 


7-75 
2^00 
5-75 
•15 
100 

7^75 


7-65 
110 
6^55 
•38 
r35 

5^66 


7^55 
]^50 
6^05 
•35 
P25 

6.04 


7^50 
r50 
6-00 
•35 
1 30 

5^76 



The specimen marked An. is from Cape Ann, Mass. (var. borealis); that marked 
5 E., is var. pallida from Astoria, N. Y. ; the rest are from Vineyard Sound, Mass. 

The adult males have the left ventral arm conspicuously hectocoty- 
lized (Plate XXIX, figs. 3, 3a) by an alteration and enlargement of 
the sucker-pedicels and a decrease in the size of the cups of the suckers, 
some of which usually disappear entirely, especially in the outer row. 
The modification commences at about the 18th to 20th sucker, by 
the swelling of the bases of the pedicels ; on siicceeding suckers this 
rapidly becomes more marked and the swollen bases of the pedicels 
become more elongated and gradually become compressed trans- 
versely, while the size of the cups rapidly deci-eases till at about the 
28tli to 30th they are very minute and rest at the summits of the 
large, flattened, acute-triangular supports ; from the 30th to 35th the 
cups usually become mere rudiments or disappear, in large males ; 
beyond this the cups again grow larg-*r and the pedicels decrease in 
size, till the small suckers become normal on the tip of the arm. 
About twenty-five to thirty of the suckers of the outer row are thus 



* Professor Steenstrup formerly advanced the opinion that the males of Octopus and 
other genera of Cephalopods were provided with the hectocotylized arm from the first, 
but this we have not found to be the case. The hectocotylized condition of the arm in 
Loligo is developed in proportion to the development of the internal sexual organs, 
and is first distinctly noticeable in the larger of the young ones taken in autumn, and 
in the spring, in the young ones that have survived their first winter. 

Trans. Conn. Acau., Vol. V. 39 February, 1881. 



316 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

modified in the larger males. Of the inner row, a somewhat smaller 
number of suckers show distinct alteration, and these are less exten- 
sively altered ; their pedicels are swollen and their cups reduced, 
but not to so great an extent, and usually none of the cups are 
entirely absent. 

In young males, with the mantle about 70'""' to 90"'"\ (young of the 
previous year, or perhaps of the first year, when three to five months 
old,) these modifications of the suckers begin to appear, at first very 
indistinctly, by a slight enlargement of the bases of the pedicels and 
a scarcely noticeable decrease in the size of the cujis. In specimens 
with the mantle 100"'"^ to 130'^"" long (probably young of the previous 
year, nine months to a year old) the modification of the suckers, 
though much less marked than in the adults, is sufficiently distinct, 
the pedicels having become distinctly longer and stouter, Avhile the 
cups are evidently reduced in size, but none of them are abortive in 
such specimens. 

Loligo Pealei, var. borealis Verriii. 

Plate XXXVII, figure 2 (pen). Plate XLI, figure 1, (anatomy). 

Since this variety was described I have had opportunities to exam- 
ine a much larger series of specimens from Cape Ann. These show 
A^ery plainly that this form passes by intermediate gradations, into 
the typical form, so that it cannot be considered as anything more 
than a local or geographical variety. The diiFerences in the propor- 
tion of the fin to the mantle, noticed in the original specimens, do not 
hold good, with a larger series. The only varietal character, of much 
importance, is the relatively smaller suckers, and this is much less 
marked in most of the later examples than in the former ones, and 
is a character that varies greatly in the specimens from every locality.* 

In the original specimens the 'pen' (PI. XXXVIl, fig. 2) while 
having the general form of that of L. Pealei^ tapers more gradually 
anteriorly, and has a narrower, more tapered, sharper and stiffer 
anterior tip. The variations in proportion are sufficiently indicated 
by the measurements given in tables A, B and G, in which those 
specimens designated as 2 G. to 5 G. were measured while fresh. 
The one marked An. ? is from the lot originally described as variety 
borealis, and illustrates the abnormally small size of the suckers. 



* Probably those with almormally small tentacular suckers are instances in which 
the arms, the clubs, or the suckers have been lost and afterwards reproduced, as 
explained below. 



A. E. Verrill — JVorth American Ce2)halopods. 317 

LoligO Pealei, var. pallida YerriU. 

Plate XXXIV, figures 1-4: Plate XXXVII, figures 9-11, (suckers). 
Plate XL, figure 1, (anatomy). 

This geographical variety or sub-species is distinguished from the 
typical form chiefly by its shorter and stouter body, in both, sexes, its 
broader and larger caudal fin, and the larger size of the suckers, 
especially those of the tentacular club. 

The caudal fin is broad-rhomboidal, often as broad as long, or even 
broader than long, in adult specimens. The ratio of the breadth of 
the fin to the mantle-length, in the larger specimens (with mantle 
150'""' to 225""" long) is, in the males, from 1 : 1-75 to 1 : 2-00, while 
in L. Pealei, of corresponding size, the ratio is 1:2-15 to 1 : 2*30 ; 
in the females of var. pallida, of similar size, the ratio varies from 
1 : r45 to 1 : 1-75 (see tables F, G). Tentacular arms long and 
slender, varying in length according to the amount of contraction, 
in extension longer than the body, the club or portion that bears 
suckers forming about one-third the whole length. In a few males 
the larger suckers on the middle of this portion are not so large as 
the largest on the other arms, but usually they are twice as large. In 
some females the principal suckers of the tentacular arms are very 
much larger than in others, and considerably exceed those of the 
males of equal length ; they form two alternating rows, of eight to ten 
each, along the middle of the club ; external to them there is a row 
of smaller suckers alternating with them on each side; the suckers 
toward the tips ai*e veiy numerous, small and crowded in four rows ; 
at the tip there is a group of about twenty minute, smooth-edged 
suckers, in four rows. Outside of the suckers, on each side, there 
is a broad marginal membrane, having the edges scalloiDed and 
strengthened between the scallops by strong, transverse, muscular 
ridges ; another membranous fold runs along the back side, expand- 
ing into a broad membranous keel or crest near the end. The arms 
of the ventral pair are intermediate in length between those of the 
second and third pairs. 

Ground-color of the body, head, arms and fins, pale, translucent 
yellowish white ; the upper surface is covered with pale brown, une- 
qual, circular spots, which are not crowded, having spaces of whitish 
between them ; the spots are more sparse on the head and arms, but 
somewhat clustered above the eyes; entire ventral surface pale, with 
small, distant, brownish, circular spots, which are nearly obsolete on 
the siphon and arms. The general appearance of the animal, when 
fresh, is unusually pale and gelatinous. The pen is broad, quill- 
<<haped, translucent and amber-colored. 



318 A. E. Verrill — JVorth American Cephalopods. 

A medium-sized male specimen, recently preserved in alcohol, 
measured 145""" from the base of the dorsal arms to the posterior end 
of the body ; length of body, 120"^"^ ; length of caudal fin, VO""" ; 
breadth of fin, 75"^"' ; length of first pair of arms, 42""" ; of second 
pair, 50""^' ; of third, 60"'"' ; of ventral pair, 53""" ; of tentacular 
arms, 150""". (For other measurements see tables B to E.) 

Astoria, Long Island, 1870, (Robert Benner), 

This form has been received, hitherto, only from the western part 
of Long Island Sound, where it is abundant with the schools of 
menhaden, on which it feeds. 

Reproduction of lost parts. 

I have observed in this species, as well as in Ormnastrephes illece- 
brosifs, numerous instances in which some of the suckers have been 
torn off and afterwards reproduced. In such examples new suckers 
of various sizes, fi-om those that are very minute up to those that are 
but little smaller than the normal ones, can often be found scattered 
among the latter, on the same individual. It seems to me possible 
that some of the specimens having the suckers on the tentacular arms 
unusually small, may have i-eproduced all those suckers, or still more 
likely, the entire arm. 

I have seen specimens of this species, and also of O. illecebrosus, 
which, after having lost the tips, or even the distal half of one or 
more of the sessile arms, have more or less completely reproduced the 
lost parts.* In such cases the restored portion is often more slender 
and has smaller suckers than the normal arms, and where the old part 
joins the new there is often an abrupt change in size. Probably this 
diiference would wholly disappear, after a longer time. 

An unquestionable and most remarkable example of the reproduc- 
tion of several entire arms occurs in a small specimen taken off" New- 
port, R. I., Aug., 1880. This has the mantle 70"'"' long; dorsal arms 
22'"'", 3d pair of arms 30"'"'. The three upper pairs of arms are per- 
fectly normal, but both the tentacular and both the ventral arms 
have evidently been entirely lost and then reproduced, from the very 
base. These four arms are now nearly perfect in form, but are 

* Perhaps the Dosidicus Esclmchtii Steenstrup is only an OmmastrejjJtes or Sthenoteu- 
this which h:id lost and parlially reproduced the tips of all the arms. Aside from the 
solid cone of the pen, characters have not been given sufficient to distinguish it 
generieally. My former reference of this species (p. 250) to the Teuthidce, was an 
error, due to the brevity of the original description. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



310 



scai'cely half their normal size on the left side, and still smaller on the 
right side. The left tentacular arm is only 24'"™ long, and very 
slender, but it has the normal proportion of club, and the suckers, 
though well formed, are diminutive, and those of the two median 
rows are scarcely larger than the lateral ones, and delicately dentic- 
ulated. The right tentacular arm is less than half as long (12'""") 
being of about the same length as the I'estored ventral one of the same 
side; it is also very slender and its suckers very minute and soft, 
in four equal rows. The right ventral arm is only 14""" long; the 
left one 15"^"" long ; both are provided with very small but otherwise 
normal suckers. 

In another specimen from Vineyard Sound, a female, with the 
mantle about 150"°^ lowg? one of the tentacular arms bad lost its club, 
but the wound had healed and a new club was in process of formation. 
This new club is represented by a small tapering acute process, 
starting out obliquely from the stump, and having a sigmoid curva- 
ture ; its inner surface is covered with very minute suckers. The 
other arms are normal. 

Ef/f/s and Younr/. 

The eggs are contained in many elongated, fusiform, gelatinous 
capsules (cut 3), which are attached in clusters by one end to sea- 
weeds or some other common support ; from the point of attachment 




they radiate in all directions. These clusters ai'e often six or eight 
inches in diameter, containing hundreds of the capsules, which are 
mostly from two to three inches long and tilled with numerous eggs, 
the number varying from 20, or less, up to about 200. The trans- 
parent eggs are arranged, in the well-formed capsules, in six or more 
rows and are so closely crowded that they touch each other and 
often take polygonal forms, especially when preserved. 

How many of these capsules are deposited by one female is very 
uncertain. Probably several females are concerned in the formation 
of the larger clusters. The eggs are mostly laid in June and July, 
but many are laid in August, and some even in September. By the 



320 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopocls. 

11th of June, in the vicinity of New Haven, many of these eggs con- 
tain embryos in advanced stages of development (Plate XLI, figs. 2, 
3 ; Plate XLV, fig. 4). The embryos, before hatcliing, can swim 
around inside the eggs. 

These embryos are very beautiful objects to observe under the 
microscope. 

Even at this early period some of the chromatophores are already 
developed in the mantle and arms, and during life, if examined under 
the microscope, these orange and purple vesicles can be seen to con- 
tract and expand rapidly and change colors, as in the adult, but the 
phenomena can be lar more clearly seen in these embryos owing to 
the greater transparency of the skin. In the young the chromato- 
phores are very regularly and symmetrically arranged, on the arms, 
head, and mantle. At this stage of development the eyes are brown. 
In these embryos a remnant of the yolk-sac {y), appears to protrude 
from the mouth, but it is really connected with the space around 
the mouth and pharynx, and into this it is eventually absorbed. 

The more advanced of the embryos were capable of swimming 
about, when removed from the eggs, by means of the jets of water 
from the siphon (s), Avhich is developed at an earlier stage. The 
arms {a"-a"") are then short, blunt, very unequal, with few minute 
suckers ; the dorsal arms are very small, while those of the 2d and 
3d pairs are successively longer, and have distinct suckers; the ten- 
tacular arms («'") are longer and larger than any of the others, and 
have larger suckers, which already, in some examples, can be seen to 
form four rows; the ventral arms («"",) are about ns long as the 2d 
jiair, and bear several suckers. The mantle (m) is short, and the 
caudal fins (_/") are very small, short, lateral, and separately attached 
to each side of the blunt posterior end of the body, thus recalling 
their adult condition in Rossia. The eyes (e) are large and promi- 
nent ; the rudimentary beak [d) and odontophore (I) are distinctly 
visible. The two otoliths (o) are very distinctly visible, as highly , 
refracting ovate bodies, above the basal part of the siphon, one on 
each side. The ink-sac (/), attached to the rectum {t),\& conspicuous 
on account of its dark color; the gills [g) are provided with a small 
number of transverse processes; the heart (A) and the branchial 
auricles [Ii h') are easily seen, while they continue to pulsate. The 
pen exists only in a rudimentary condition, as a thin cartilage. 

During July and August the young (fig. 5) from less than a 
quarter of an inch to an inch or more in length, swim free at the 
surface, and may often be taken in immense quantities with towing 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 321 

nets. They were particularly abixudant in the summers of 1871 and 
1873, in Vineyard Sound. 

These young squids are devoured in inconceivable numbers by 
fishes of many kinds, and also by the adult squids of the same 
species, and by the larger jelly-fishes, and many otter marine ani- 
mals. The larger sizes, and even the adults, are also greedily 
devoured by blue-fish, black-bass, striped-bass, weak-fish, mackerel, 
cod, and many other kinds of fishes. Therefore these " squids " are 
really of great importance as food for our most valuable market 
fishes. They are extensively used as bait by the fishermen. 

Rate of Groioth. 

I am not aware that any definite information has hitherto been 
published as to the rate of growth or length of life of any of our 
Cephalopods. By some writers it has been stated that the squids 
are all annual, but this seems to be a mere assumption, without any 
evidence for its basis. 

Therefore, I have, for several yeai's past, preserved large numbers 
of specimens of the young of Loligo Pealei, collected at diflferent 
seasons and localities, in order to ascertain, if possible, the rate of 
growth and the size acquired during the first season, at least. One 
of the following tables (I) shows some of the data thus obtained. 

There is considerable difliculty in ascertaining the age of these 
squids, owing to the fact that the spawning season extends through 
the whole summer, so that the young ones hatched early in June are 
as large by September as those that hatch in September are in the 
following spring. Owing to the same cause, most of the large lots 
of young squids taken in mid-summer include various sizes, from 
those just hatched up to those that are two or three inches long. 
They are often mixed with some of those of the previous year, con- 
siderably larger than the rest. Earlier in the season (in May and the 
first part of June), before the first-laid eggs begin to hatch, the young- 
est specimens taken (60 to 100""™ long) are presumed to belong to the 
later broods of the previous autumn, while those somewhat larger are 
believed to be from earlier broods of the previous summer, and to 
represent the growth of one year, very nearly. 

Taking these principles as a guide, I have arrived at the following 
conclusions, from the data collected : 

1. The young squids begin to hatch at least as early as the second 
week in June, on the southern coast of New England, and continue 
to hatch till the middle of September, and perhaps later. 



322 A. JE. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

2. By the second week in July, the first hatched of the June squids 
have grown to the size in which the body (or mantle) is 80 to 48""" 
long ; but these are associated with others that are younger, of 
all sizes down to those just hatched. But they begin to show a dis- 
position to go in "schools" composed of individuals of somewhat 
similar sizes. 

3. By the second week in August, the largest June squids have 
become 50 to 68"'"' in length of body, and the later broods are 5 
to 30""" long. As before, with these sizes occur others of all ages 
down to those just hatched. It should be observed, however, that 
in those of our tabulated lots taken by the trawl, the very small sizes 
are absent, becaitse they pass freely through the coarse meshes of the 
net. 

4. By the second week in September, the June squids have the 
mantle 60 to 82"'™ long. All the grades of smaller ones still 
abound. A few larger specimens, taken the last of August, and in 
September, 84 to 110""" long, may belong to the June brood, but 
they may belong to those of the previous autumn. 

5. In the first week of November, the larger young squids taken 
had acquired a mantle length of 79 to 85'"", but these are probably 
not the largest that might be found. Younger ones, probably 
hatched in September and October, 8 to 20"'"' in length of body, 
occurred in vast numbers Nov. 1, 1874. The specimens taken Novem- 
ber 16, off Chesapeake Bay, having the mantle 70-90'"" long, probably 
belong to the schools hatched in summer. 

6. In May and June the smallest squids taken, and believed to be 
those hatched in the previous September or October, have the man- 
tle 62 to 100'""' long. With these there are others of larger sizes, 
up to 152 to 188""", and connected with the smaller ones by inter- 
mediate sizes. All these are believed to belong to the various broods 
of the previous season. In these, the sexual organs begin to increase 
in size and the external sexual characters begin to appear. The males 
are of somewhat greater length than the females of the same age. 

7. In July, mingled with the young of the season, in some lots, 
but more often in separate schools, we take young squids having the 
mantle 75 to 100""" long. These we can connect by intermediate 
sizes with those of the previous year, taken in June. I regard these 
as somewhat less than a year old. 

8. Beyond the first year it becomes very difficult to determine the 
age with certainty, for those of the first season begin, even in the 
autumn, to overlap in their sizes those of the previous year. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 323 

9. It is probable that those specimens which are taken in large 
quantities, while in breeding condition, during the latter part, of May 
and in June, having the mantle 175 to 225™™ long in the females 
and 200 to 275"'"' long in the males, are two years old. 

10. It is probable that the largest individuals taken, with the man- 
tle 300 to 425'"°' long, are at least three years, and perhaps, in some 
cases, four years old. The very large specimens generally occur only 
in small schools and are mostly males. The females that occur with 
these very large males are often of much smaller size, and may be a 
year younger than their mates. 

11. When squids of very different sizes occur together, in a school, 
it generally happens that the larger ones are engaged in devouring 
the smaller ones, as the contents of their stomachs clearly show. 
Therefore it is probable that those of similar age keep together in 
schools for mutual safety. 

12. Among the adult specimens of var. pallida^ taken in autumn, 
at Astoria, there are several young ones, from 75 to 120'"'° in 
length, with rudimentary reproductive organs. Tliese may, perhaps, 
be the young of the year, hatched in June. 

Distribution. 

This species is found along the whole coast, from South Carolina 
to Massachusetts Bay. 

It is the common, squid from Cape Hatteras to Cape Cod. In 
Long Island Sound and Vineyard Sound it is very abundant, and is 
taken in large numbers in the fish-pounds and seines, and used, to 
a large extent, for bait. It is comparatively scarce, though not rare, 
north of Cape Cod. The young were trawled by us in many locali- 
ties, in Mass. Bay, in 1878. Large specimens were taken in the 
])Ounds at Provincetown, Mass., August, 1879. It was taken in con- 
siderable quantities, in breeding condition, in the fish-pounds on Cape 
Ann, near Gloucester, Mass., May, 1880, [var. horealis). It has not 
been observed north of Cape Ann. Its southern limit is not known 
to me, but it appears to have been found on the coast of South Caro- 
lina. 

In depth, it has occurred from low-water mark to fifty fathoms. 
The eggs have often been taken by us in the trawl, in great abun- 
dance, at many localities along the southern shores of New England, 
in five to twenty-five fathoms. 

It is known to be a very important element in the food-supply of 
the blue fish, tautog, sea-bass, striped bass, weak-fish, king-fish, and 
many other of our larger market fishes. 

Teans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 40 February, 1881. 



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326 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



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1 "5 


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to mantle, 
to mantle, 
to its leng 




longest s 

edge, ab 

edge, be: 

on of fin. 

■ dorsal a 
dorsal ar 
2d pair a 
3d pair a 
ventral a 
tentacula 
ad, across 
ad, in fro 
dy 

s 

of body, 
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•^ 


ail to end of 
ail to mantle 
ail to mantle 
ail to insert! 

ail to eye 

ail to base o 
ye to eud of 
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ye to end of 
ye to end of 
YQ to end of 
readth of he 
readth of he 
readth of bo 
readth of fin 
ireumference 
ength of ten 


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fin 
ffin 
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1 HEHEHHH&HpaS^K W Wmeq pqpqQi.q 


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328 



A. E. Verrill — JVbrth American Cephalopods. 





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f 3d pair arms 
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tions : 

L of fin to mantle, .. 
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Ii of fin to its length 


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A. E. Verrlll — North Americcifi Cephalopods. 



329 





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330 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 






|i 



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M 


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1-59 
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(r^iix>_t-^.yH-^cqoo,-Ht--^co |'^<^' ' ' 
ooj^inoo654j(-^in-*cic<iA-iAH '-^ih ' ' 


1-64 
1-78 
1-08 

l'-56 


-A 


in o in ^ CO 
ini-cqcoinc-jTj^ooinrHOOCO'^ttiOr^oii— 1 

doi-inooa3A)<AHTi<4)iocqAHAHAHinin' 


CO O O ir- in 
CD t- 9 ^ CO 
Ah Ah Ah o Ah 


N 


in in \!n in inmoo o-h 
t-r-Hc^c^t-ooooincpojinco-^t-ooic-i-^ 
oodoin65a5fo-^4j(4nCT)cqAHAHAH4ii4j<" 


in 00 -^ O ir- 
«) 00 >— 1 in r- 

Ah Ah Ah CO Ah 


-o 


in in in 
_(M-rHcoc<i.7H-^t-^ro^ ic^i iin_ > < 

05dcin050Tt*-^Tj44)Hc3icq 'Ah '4fin ' ' 


1-66 
2-00 
1-20 

1-80 


W 


in in o in in ^ CO 
cocoootDcOT)<c^iNr-iroaj^Ti<o^L-(M— 1 

osaoinojo-^ininTifoNAH.— c^inin' 


1-60 
1-80 
112 
38-75 
1-61 


1— 1 


in in in o o cm ^ 

,-iin00COi:-rtl:-(M OOOOlOMOOOiniM^ 


Jr- CO CD Ol CD 

in 00 -^i in y 


03ooino50-*rj*inino(M.-ir-i^inin 


1 

e 

Si 

1 

•1- 


Tail to edge of mantle, above . . 

Tail to edge of mantle, beneath . 

Tail to origin of fin 

Tan to center of eye 

Tail to base of dorsal arms. 

Eye to end of dorsal arms 

Eye to end of 2d pair arms 

Eye to end of 3d pair arms 

P]ye to end of 4th pair arms 

Eye to end of tentacular arms - 

Length of club of tentacular arms 

Breadth of head across eyes 

Breadth of head in front of eyes 

Breadth of body 

Breadtli of caudal fins .-- 

Circumference of body 

Diam. of largest suckers of club — 

Diam. of largest suckers of 3d pair arms . 




Proportio7is : 

Length of fin to length of mantle 1 

Breadth of fin to length of mantle 1 

Breadth of fin to its length 1 

Large tentacular sucker to mantle 1 

Circumference of body to mantle 1 



rd ^ I* 

H "^ M 

03 (D 

p H cS 

m • •— 
^ ^ <o 

§ ^l 

•z. > -^ 

03 t^ 2 



Ph> 






.S o oT 

+0 CS "H 

® d d 

r/i CD 03 

>t3d 

CO > 

CO p,lz; 



rd 



!h en 

cs a> 4J 

2-^ fl 

fl r-( ai 

rH ^ "^ 
fl 03 

a> ,d (D 

CS t*» O 

-^ S ^ 

1- t>J 





CO _- 






= o 




tc 


n o 












(U CO 




'*^ 




fl 


Oj m 






«. ^ 




Tl 




^ 


O) 


-d t>i 


o 


'^ 


+3 ^ 


,d 






o 


o 


n-^ 


o 


d 


P2 


CO 
o 








fl 


'a a 


.5 


d 


o 


d 








m 


a i^ 




f 














fl CO 


j=i 



5S s ^ 

fl '« fl 
5 2 d-2 

<!^ S fl ■« 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopoch. 



331 



'^ 





in in 


m 




m c-1 m N 


&^ 


<X> C-l (Jl t)* 00 ■— 1 CO C-l (M CO t- 1 


Ol cq 1 




00 Ol O I 1— 1 


P7oic^cY54t*i-icqcqc^ini^ ' 


1^ in ' 




r-l .^ 1-1 'Ah 




lO 


m 




in CD m o 


02 


t-cocooifooooscoroice-ioocD i 


^ CV5 1 




o r- 00 I T— 1 




CYJCVJi— 'rf^^JIr^i— iC^ltMOf^ ' 


C-1 M ' 




cq ^ o ' iM 






m 




m m o CO 


o> 


r-C<l C^<X>t-(-^t--<tl>-l?MO0I:- ■ 


e^ > 




00 CO ^ 1 i-H 




OTcocN^tHTifwo^fr^cfliirt ' 


c-i ro ' 




■^ '"' " ' '"' 




in in 






ooo (M 


S 


00 (M Oin !Min-*C5COCOl:- 1 


1— 1 1 




Ci Ol p 1 C<l 


cv: re c<) -^ -in c^i c'l c<i n in — ' 


C^ 00 ' 




in in in in 






OOO r-i 


^ 


tJ< <Mt-^ini:-C005-*C5t- i 


m CD 1 




O CO 00 1 ^ 




4j<ccc^4jH4j<(fqc-iiq<rqin,-i ' 


Cl CO 




c-1 I— 1 ' 1— 1 




in 






ooo i-i 


M 


-i<— 'in coinc-iooccoioo ■ 


^ CO 1 




05 05 O 1 (M 


■*CV5C^T)(inc<10)C<lC<lri<,^ 


C^ CO ' 




.-1 1— 1 T^ ' rH 




in in in 






CD 05 m OS 


c3 


^occfOJ^-(^^cOln t-Ttfmoji:- ■ 


^ CD ! 




00 t- C5 1 i-H 




•^MC^Ttfinc^C-IMC^itH ' 


cq CO ' 




-M 1— 1 ' rM 




ooo mm moomm 


O O .-1 


CO 


Ol 05 <M O ^^- 


,__( 


1— icocomoot-rtm mcoc^icjcd 


03 00(7^ 


1— ' 


CD 00 1— 1 00 "* 




i?-OTjit-.^M-^4j*TJIo<ri'^ -^ 


CO -* 




.— 1 1— 1 1— ( CO "-I 

CO 




m 


m 




CD m m t- 


^ 


<MC<I^i-imCO(M OTi<(M 1 


J:— 1 


1 


CO i:- O 1 -* 


t-QD-^t-aOMM-^-^OOC^i^rH ' 


4j< -^ ' 




,-, r-f r-t ,-, 










05 O 00 CO 


^ 


O— lOi fOr-II— r-ICOl- n— 1 1 


CO CD 1 


' 


'^ <p r-t 1 tH 

Ah c-i t^ ' --I 


oiocot-t-coM-^ffst-c-i.-.t— 1 ' 


CO -^ ' 




m m 


m m 




1— Ci ^^ <Ji 


„_, 


.— im mcoi— ooi-ioocofoc-ii—i i 


05 TJH 1 


1 


It- J:- O I m 




t-o-^jr-oofrjMrhfCOSCqrHili ' 


CO -^ ' 




Ah I-H 1—1 ' 1— 1 




mm + 






m j>- ir- in 


1-5 


CO t *£-— IC- ^CO 1 li—i^ 1 


^^ £— t 


1 


o t- o 1 m 




t-cb-^^oiasTf-^-^ ' ' ^ ^ ' 


■^ ^ ' 




'"'"'"' '^ 




I • : ; ; ; ; ; i i ! M ; 


; i ; 


a 


^ ^ ^ ,_, ^^ 








1^ 




*o 


! ! 1 ! ! ! 'i ! 1 ! ! ! ! ! 


1 I 1 




1 1 ! <i> 1 












^ 


1 ^' 1 I I 1 1 1 I 1 S i «^ 1 


1 t j^ 


ft 


tie 
ntl 

lan 
tie 


r^ 




■ '-' 


rrr 


a '^. a a 




abov 
bene 

rms. 

ms._ 

rms. 
arms 
r arm 
cular 
eyes 
t of e 


1 . '^ 

I I ^ 


CO 
O 


of ma 
of m 
gth. 
er to 
to ma 










^ ^_ s -^ >. 






K t>^ 0) 


(U 


1 


f mant 
f mant 
of fin . 
of eye . 
' dorsa 
dorsal 
2d pail 
3d pail 
4th pai 
tentaci 
) of ten 
ad aero 
ad in fi 

idal fill 
of bod 
st suck 


o 
to 


to lengt 
to leng 
to its 1 

ular su 
of bod 


„9Sooooo^^S^ 
be be £f fl S'73't3-T3-n;'C.'M^<« 






is: 
fin 
f fin 
Efin 
utac 
snce 


.§> 


3 g £?£? 

c»H D CB cS 


^ 


cDaiOOrQa)<i><ua;a)"^rHr-i 


■=■ ?S"^ ' 


' 


1 o 2 ® £ ^ 


^«« o 


CM 

o 




oooooooooo':S4i±i±2iia . 




S -B^i^ %\ 




:d:S:S:dn::ppp?QJflSSS 


rea 
irci 
lan 


d 

C3 


J^- a> t. S: c .i: 




HHH&HHWHWHWK!fflpqmmofiP 



Teans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 



41 



June, 1881. 









ci; 



^ 


c<i in inin ininino inin 
Or-(a5_ oooo3;c<)c<i— irt— loot- 'Op i i 
fOcoAHT)<-*-^r^eqc<iin — Ci' ' 'e^co ' ' 


m ?o in 00 

oo t- p 1 r-l 


P5 


lO in in in 

«5(N_ _CV500CT>TjfTt(CO00(MO5r- liMCq i i 

Ml^^<^^■^-^rt^H(^l(^llhr^65' " ' i^ co ' ' 


O O 00 o 

oo p 00 1 r-l 


03 O 


in in 
«pM_ _ inwcq^ticqc^r-itNoojr- ''7||^^ ' ' 
mmir^Tti4jH.^cqcqcqinr^05' ' 'eqco ' ' 


o ■— 1 m c<i 

CO t- Oi 1 r-i 


f^ 


ininin mmm omooo 
ooco_ r-<cooic~i<»ino2ro lOitoc^fMinoo 

fOCO(M-^rj(r^cq(fqC-)inrH '' ' r^NCo' 


1^92 
1-71 

-88 

48-12 

1-10 


fl 


in in in in in in 
?^ ■?* .?""■?* "^ . 'P ?' T* <^ '^'' ?■ "T^ ■ ■? "P ' ' 


m 05 r-l T-l 
p in 00 > rH 


w 


in o in in in m in 

C-lt-COCO_ _C>lini>-r)((M lOii^-CO':0 1 1 ■ 
^cb<MT^in(MC^C^C<Iinr-i '' 'r^C^ ' ' ' 


^ O «5 

00 CD oo 1 1 

r-* r-l ' ' ' 


t) 


o in in in in (m oo 
^_ int-cqrJft-r-H— iin-^c-i_ oo loo. T^p 
■^■^cq-^ini~-icqcon5«br^r^— ' '(f.l4jH' 


-* -+ Oi CO m 
oo p 00 p ^ 

CO 


H 


in in in in in o in 
<r>05inooMpr)Hinininr-io5oo it-ir- i i i 
■^co<f^'^inc^ic<icqc<iin'^' ' ' 6^ m ' ' ' 


1-82 

1-72 

•94 

l'24 


O 


oin in mm oomoo m 

rHCOOOC-J 1— imOOr-ICDOO00-<j<rH<MrH00 


(M m O C r-H 

OO CO 05 O C^l 

CO 


m^^O-im^DC-JC^COCOt-r-icMi— 1 1— ICO-^ 


a 


o m m o «o r-H 

Mt-pmrH_ C<It-r-COr-l_ r-l_ ip-^rHrH 

iin-Tjist-otcocowooc-jmAHAn 'co^ji' 


<M (M o m o 
J^- t- p t- -r^ 

r^ r^ r^ 00 rt 
CO 


&c 


mm m oo i— i 

c^ir-t-j: i< _ Ct-: t- ^ CO _ ^<^05 ''P'*T'7^ 

Qsmcoii^-cococoMt-c-iTtii^' ' m -^ 


OO 00 m CS C^ 

p t- p t- -^ 
rt r^ r^ 4l( ,1, 

CO 


p 


m m in t- o 

COOOpinCOCOOOpOOpM lT^^r^mrHp^^r^ 

cbincoiit-cofocoMooc^i 'Anr^t^-^^ji' 


(M ^ m m OO 

p in p p CO 

r^ 1— 1 ' t- rt 

CO 


M 


mm iM CI 

J^- OJi— 1_ C005CO<M>— '«3C-10':C^ ippc^r-l 

cbi>-^t-JocT:co-*-^6ic<)i'-^t^ 'tC-^' 


05 m pH m to 
m ^ p tH p 
Ah r^ ' O Ah 

CO 


- 


m m 

COCCCO(MO CDCOOOl— --ICOIM Ir— (OO 1 1 


1-62 
1-70 
1-04 

1-45 


h 


mm in in lo mooco 

1— ICOOOmi— IO0':)*5OCOC0Tj(00T)<CO00rJHmc^-H 

oot-r)<oooiM-^'^'^o>ir^t-i-ii— ir-(-^m' 
1— 1 


05 m ci m 00 

p p p -t- tJ( 
Ah Ah Ah o Ah 


- 


mm m mo m c<i 

•^^.pGom.^m_ mr-ip_ -^copcomcqi-i 
oot-mooos-^rHm-^ocqoir^r^r^rjiin' 


1-63 
1-75 
1-07 
33-60 
1-52 


1 

i 

1 


Tail to edge of mantle, above 

Tail to edge of mantle, beneath 

Tail to origin of fin 

Tail to center of eye 

Tail to base of dorsal arms 

Eye to end of dorsal arms 

Eye to end of 2d pair arms 

Eye to end of 3d pair arms 

Eye to end of 4th pair arms 

Eye to end of tentacular arms 

Length of club to tentacular arms 

Total length, tail to end of tentacles 

Breadth of head across eyes 

Breadth in front of eyes 

Breadth of body 

Breadth of caudal fins 

Circumference of body. 

Diam. of largest suckers of club 

Diam. of largest suckers of 3d pair arms.. 




Proxjortions : 

Length of fin to length of mantle 1 

Breadth of fin to length of mantle 1 

Breadth of fin to its length 1 

Largest tentacular sucker to mantle 1 

Circumference of body to mantle 1 



Ah '^ 



,-^ ,-i — p 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



833 



i-:i 

^ 



I I II 

O 00 C-l C^ (M C^l 

(M 00 ^- o ira o 



C<1 c<i r— ( -^ 



II II 

III •• •• 

C O .C O] O O UO 

^11 II II ri ci .^ i "? 

I I 4_ C-l (M C-l C-1 lO 

o = o II II II II t; 



+ ; 



•• I m vn 

CO lO — ' — I 

<M tJ< II II 



ccr-c^tOsDoo<M^Hr— 00 

C- r-l r-H r— I (M <M (M <>) 
I 

^2 t» >» >> t-j i>j &D be bb bo be 



t- '^ r- ci 



• t> >>Sqo >>bC&Cho 

2i H^ H^ t^K^ t^^l <j <1 <l <1ccoo t^ S ►^ i-5<i<H<1 



lU aj 03 03 <D (p 

o o o p O o 

CC ^ C3 Ct! ,CC C3 



m ixi ai 02 oj !Xi 



r^ '^ r3 "^ f^ '^ '^ 'O 



■^ "^ "^ "^ ^ '^ '^ '^ 
3 3 3^3 



oooooooooooooooo 

m'Ji'f2miXi'nir}irirf^zfirmnuimoi'j'i 

■^ "^ "T^ "^ "^ "^ "^ "^ "^ "^ "^ "^ "^ "^ "^ T^ 

o<Da3a><i3a)<Da>ci»(X)a)<D©<D(D<i> 

3333333333303333 



pi S "5 "S 

"^ m o o 

1: pi fe ^ 




334 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 






S 





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^^ 










k. 


I 
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111 1 I 11! 













1"^ III II III 










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£ 


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0. 










£ 



bs 


li^ ; : ; ; is ; ; i 








■^ 


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O 





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a 





1— 1 '^O CO II CO 

i-i 00 CO 11 i-i 














s 




11 II II 0. 11 








a 




r-l (M fO I-I <M 






















(M 








<a 




CO 








t2 




1 








a 




m i-H 
t- tM 1— 1 








a 

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10 '^ •• C^J 




CO 




bo 

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a 
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11 II II 11 1:- ^ CO II II II 

CO -iH II II II II II II 





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1— ' 




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rH 






CO Imoiooo cDC£)ir5co>n 




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II 






l«0| |lOCO':H-*'*l 1 1 




CO CO 






t- rt CO !M 1 I 00 1 1 01 CO <M 




1 1 








I-' ||(M--cO'# noooicoi-^i** 

nil 11 lU^j^'li^ 

CO CO C^ II II *^ 11 II CO ^ <M 




^ 00 00 — 


00 o*- 








CO CO (M CO 


CO t- CO 








II II II II 


II II ^ 






COi— IC0 1:-N01-Jt-C-4(M — (MCO 




— 1 -H CO (M 


(M r-l ITS 




CO^COJr-COTHt-^i— ICOCO CO 




03 CD -J CO 


Oi CO 


• 


(_j' 1— 1 1— 1 T— 1 ,— ' C^ CI ■?.] CO ■— 1 ■— 1 


00 


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CJ 00 




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-*' £ 


p, 


COC3I— I— ICOCOlO-t^COJ^-<^l 100 




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O 


rti-l|C^l ^ r-l|.-.lC !--( 




r- -* ^ '^ 


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1 ! 1 1 1' 1 1 I I I ^ I 1 










1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 >^ 1 1 










1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 • 1 










1 1 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 i~. 1 1 










! i I ! 1 I 1 ; I 1 ^ I ! 










1=1 










! I 1 I 1 1 1 ' • I ^ I 1 


















^ 


I-I M 1 ;:;;;; ^' f^ ! ; 








■3 



P5P^" : ' : ; : : : §,- : ^ 




>»►>>(>> >^ 











cQ cd o3 <^ 




1-^ 


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wmwpq 

to «] OC! IK 


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^ ^ .13 ^ 


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0000 






i-^ ^ C3^ ctsr:?'"^ c^ cS -^•*^:::^'^ 


^ cs ^ ^ 






^ 


t» m CO 00 

t« CO CO CO 


00 c 




{Q 53 '^ ^M ^ ^H 5^3 ^ '^ ^tj * H^ ^f~j 


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oo;2io!zioo^!^ol2;oo 


^■^ '"r-1 *^ >rH 

K»i a S ^ 



A. E. VerriU — North American Cephalopods. 



335 



J. — Specimens examined, mostly adult. To illustrate distribution, etc. 

[In last column ad. = adult ; br. = breeding ; in. = length of mantle in inches ; /. or 
juv. = young; Ig. = large.] 



No. 


Locality. 


Fath. 


When Collected, 


Received from 


Specimens. 
Sex. No. 




Typical variety. 












New Haven, Conn. 




1867 


Mr. Hooes 


15 




New Haven, Conn. 







G, H. Perkins 


\$ 




Near New Haven 


Shore 


1870 


A. E. Verrill 


4 ad. 


h.k.' 


Near New Haven 


Shore 


1874 


A. E. Verrill 


$ 4 ad. 


c' 


Near New Haven 


Shore 


1876 


A. E. Verrill 


6 ad. 


IG 


New Haven harbor 


Shore 


May 18, 1880 


A. E. Verrill 


6 1 Ig. br. 




Long Island 


Shore 





C. C. Byrne 


1 juv. 


ffl', 6', 00 


Noank, Conn. 


Shore 


August, 1874 


U. S, Fish Com. 


S 3 large 




Noank, Conn. 


3-4 


August 5, 1874 


U. S. Fish Com. 


4 young 




Noank, Conn. 


6-8 


August -l^, 1874 


U. S. Fish Com. 


8 juv. 




Vineyard Sound, Ms. 


Sliore 


JI. and Aug., '71 


U. S. Fish Com. 


72 ad. 




Vineyard Sound, Ms. 


.5-8 


Jl. and Aug., '71 


U. S. Fish Com. 


30 ad. 




Menemsha 


Shore 


August, 1874 


V. N. Edwards 


f,\. ?2 




Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


.H. and Aug., '75 


U. S. Fish Com. 


7 ad. 




Vineyard Sound 


5-12 


July 12-26, 1875 


U. S. Fish Com. 


Eggs & y'ng 




Vineyard Sound 


5-16 


Aug. 4, 5, 1875 


U. S. Fish Com. 


Young 




Vineyard Sound 


6-20 


Sept. 15, 1875 


U. S. Fish Com. 


5 young 




Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


October 13, 1875 


V. N. Edwards 


3 = 5-7-5 in. 


/, g'.' 


Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


October 14, 1875 


V, N. Edwards 


3 = 5-7 in. 


a-e 


Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


October 14, 1875 


V. N. P^dwards 


c5 5 large 




Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


October 20, 1875 


V. N. Edwards 


5 = 4-5 in. 




Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


Nov. 1, 1875 


V. N. Edwards 


1=6 in. 




Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


April 30, 1876 


V. N. Edwards 


5 10 : 5 3 




Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


May 15, 1876 


V. N. Edwards 


3 = 6-7 in. 


D-W 


Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


May and June, '76 


V. N. Edwards 


3 15: s 4ad. 




Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


June 3, 1876 


V. N, Edwards 


$ 3 = 5-6 in. 


X. y' Z. 


Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


June 6. 1876 


V. N. Edwards 


3 3 large 


AA-HH 


Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


June. 1876 


V. N, Edwards 


39 ad.: $ 12 


1V-60V 


Vineyard Sound 


Shore 


May 28, 1880 


V. N. Edwards 


,5 48: ?12br. 




Narragansett Bay 


Shore 


1880 


Samuel Powell 


10 ad. 


Al" 


llyannis, Mass. 


Shore 


August, 1880 


. - . . 


5 1 very Ig. 




Narragansett Bay 


Shore 


July 27, 1880 


U. S. Fish Com. 


6 j. = 3-3-7 in. 




Off Newport, R. I. 


16-26 


August 7, 1880 


U. S. Fish Com. 


5j. = 3-5-6-5in. 




Off Pt. Judith, R. I. 


19 


August 14. 1880 


U. S. Fish Com. 


2j. = l-l-l-4in 




Off Cuttyhunk Island 


17 


Sept. 3, 1880 


U. S. Fish Com. 


2 = 5-l-5-5in. 




South of Block Island 


252 (?) 


Sept. 13, 1880 


U. S. Fish Com. 


14 juv. 


-- 


Off Chesapeake Bay 
Variety borealis. 


18 


Nov. 16, 1880 


Z. L. Tanner 


32 juv. 


An.1-3.^ 


Annisquam, Mass. 


Shore 


July, 1878 


A. Hyatt 


2 3 ad. br. 




Glouce'r, M., tide-pool 


Shore 


July, 1878 


A. E. Verrill 


2 juv. 




Massachusetts Bay 


4-7 


Sept. 21, 1878 


U. S. Fish Com. 


11 juv. 




Off Cape Cod 


42 


Sept. 26, 1879 


U. S. Fish Com. 


1 juv. 




Proviucetown, Mass. 


Shore 


July, 1879 


J. H. Blake 


3 large 


2G-T5G 


Cape Ann, Mass. 


Shore 


May 18, 1880 


A. H. Clarke 


15 ad. br. 




Cape Ann, Mass. 


Shore 


October, 1880 


A. H. Clarke 


5 5 : $ 3 juv. 


-- 


Salem, Mass. 
Variety pallida. 


Shore 





J. H. Emerton 


2 1 : ? 2 ad. 


A-Z 


Astoria, N. T. 


Shore 


Nov.-Dec, 1870 


Robt. Benner 


517: S9 


a-t 


Astoria, N. T. 


Shore 


Nov.-Dec, 1870 


Robt. Benner 


5 S 20 ad. 


1-10 


Astoria, N. T. 


Shore 


Nov.-Dec, 1870 


Robt. Benner 


S 5 ad. 


-- 


Gr't Egg Harbor, N.J. 


Shore 


1872 


A. E. Verrill 


1, bass stom. 



336 A. E. Verrill — Worth American Cephalopods. 

K. — Specimens examined. Eggs and recently hatched young of LoHgo Pealei. 



Locality. 



Near New Haven 
Vineyard Sound 
Long Island Sound 
Fisher's Sound 
Nantucket Sound 
Vineyard Sound 
Vineyard Sound 
Vineyard Sound 
Near New Haven 
Off New Haven 
Gardiner's Bay 
Off Newport, R. T. 
Off Newport, R. I. 
Off Newport, R. I. 
Narragansett Bay 
Narragansett Bay 



Shore 
5-10 

4-8 
Surf'ce 
8-12 
8-16 
5-10 

Shore 



8 
22-26 

6 
12^ 



When coUectetl, 



June 19, isn 
Jul J', Aug. '71 
August, 1874 
July 28, 1874 
July 26, 1874 
Aug. 5, 1875 
July, Aug. '75 
Sept. 6, 1875 
June 11, 1880 
Aug. 3, 1880 
June 28, 1880 
Aug. 6, 1880 
Aug. 7, 1880 
Aug. 16, 1880 
Aug. 23, 1880 
Aug. 31, 1880 



Received from 



J. E. Todd 
U. S. Fish Com. 
U. S. Fish Com. 
U. S. Fish Com. 
U. S. Fish Com. 
U. S. Fish Com. 
U. S. Fish Com. 
U. S. Fish Com. 
S. I. Smith 
J. F. Fowle 
Sch. a. H. Bradley 
U. S. Fish Com. 
U. S. Fish Com. 
U. S. Fish Com. 
U. S. Fish Com. 
U. S. Fish Com. 



Eggs or Embryos. 



Well developed. 

All stages. 

Well developed. 

Just hatched. 

Partly developed. 

Partly developed. 

All stages. 

New-laid. 

Near hatching. 

Half developed. 

New-laid. 

Fresh and well developed. 

New-laid and hatching. 

New-laid and partly dev. 

Fresh-laid. 

Partly developed. 



In the Gulf of Mexico, this species appears to be replaced by 
another species [Loligo Gahi D'Orbigny), Of this we have several 
specimens, collected on the west coast of Florida, at Egmont Key, 
near Tampa Bay, by Col. E. Jewett and Mr. W. T. Coons. This 
species is closely allied to L. Pealei., but has a more slender form, 
with the caudal fin shorter and narrower in proportion to the length 
of the mantle. The pen has a shorter and broader shaft and a nar- 
rower and more oblong blade, which has parallel, thickened and darker 
colored portions between the midrib and margins. The tentacular 
suckers have their horny rings more coarsely and equally toothed, 
there being only a partial alternation of larger and smaller teeth. 

Along our southern coast, from Delaware Bay to Florida, a much 
shorter and relatively stouter species {Loligo brevis Bv.) occurs, which 
might be mistaken, by a careless observer, for the present species. In 
addition to its shorter body, it has very different large tentacular 
suckers, with the teeth on the horny rim coarser and all of similar 
form and size. Its pen is also shorter and relatively broader, and 
different in structure. 



Notes on the Visceral Anatomy. 
Plate XL, figures l-3a. Plate XLI, figure 1,2. 
The gills {g) are large and highly organized in this species, 
although considerably smaller than in Ommastrephes. The bases of 
the gills are situated somewhat in advance of the middle of the mantle- 
cavity, and their tips, in fresh specimens, extend forward nearly to 
the base of the siphon (/"). The branchial chamber, behind the heart, 



A. E. Verrill — N'oHh American Cephalopods. 337 

is divided into two cliarabers by a median, thin, membranous par- 
tition. 

The branchial chamber is separated from the visceral cavity by a 
thin, translucent membrane, through which there are two circular 
openings (?/.), one a short distance in advance of the base of each gill ; 
through these the secretions of the urinary organs (r, r) are doiibtless 
discharged. Internally the visceral cavity is divided into several com- 
partments by folds of thin membrane. The largest of these chambers 
contains the stomach and its coscal lobe (/S', S'). When the bi-anchial 
cavity is opened on the ventral side, as in PI. XL, fig. 1, and the 
thin membranes covering the viscera are removed, the renal organs 
(r, r') are seen, as large and conspicnoiis organs, especially if the 
venous system has been injected with a colored fluid. Tliese organs 
are situated below, above, and in front of the heart, but two pyri- 
form glands (r', r'), which are firmer and have a more compact struc- 
ture than the rest, extend along the posterior venae-cavie. The an- 
terior ones, in front of the heart, consist of a number of groups or clus- 
ters of lobulated glandular follicles, developed upon the posterior 
part of the anterior vena-cava and upon its saccular divisions, on the 
hepatic veins, on the intestinal veins, and on other large veins going 
toward the branchial auricles {mi). Two of the larger divisions (r, r), 
which are elongated, and lie below and across the heart and large 
eiferent vessels (bo) returning from the gills, arise as direct forks of 
the vena-cava, which divides just in front of the origin of the intestine ; 
these forks pass each side of the intestine and each gives ofl"a dorsal 
branch, which I'uns up along the basal part of the intestine and joins 
the large saccular renal vessels that lie above the heait, on each side. 
These dorsal, renal vessels extend backward beyond the heart ; they 
receive the blood from the gastric veins posteriorly and from two 
hepatic veins anteriorly ; laterally, they communicate directly with 
the branchial auricles. 

The ventricular heart {S) is a rather large, muscular, median, some- 
what unsymmetrical organ, varying in shape according to the state 
of contraction. Usually it is more or less obliquely four-cornered, 
with the right side largest and the posterior end more or less conical. 
From the posterior end arises a large ai'tery, the posterior aorta, 
which gives ofi", close to its origin, two small arteries ; one of these 
is median, and goes forward to the ink-sac, passing below the heart ; 
two branches, close to its origin, go to the renal organs (v, r), on each 
side ; the other, arising laterally, goes to the prostate gland and other 
organs connected with it, (PL XL, fig. 2, ^:>o). A little farther back 



338 A. E. Yerrill — North American Cephalopods. 

the posterior aorta divides into three large arteries : one of these (o) 
is situated in the median plane, and crossing the branchial cavity in a 
carved line along the edge of the thin median membrane, supplies the 
ventral and lateral portions of the mantle, sending branches both for- 
ward and backward ; the other two main branches (o' o") diverge as 
they go backward and supply the caudal fins and adjacent parts of 
the mantle. The anterior aorta (ao) arises from the right anterior 
corner of the heart, and goes forward to the head, on the right side of 
the median line, by the side of the oesophagus, giving oft from its sides 
various small branches. Near its origin it is somewhat bulbous. 

The first branch, the gastric artery, arising not far from its origin, 
sends a branch to the renal organs, and running backward over the 
dorsal side of the heart, ramifies over both lobes of the stomach. 
During its passage through the substance of the liver, and along 
the groove on its dorsal side, the aorta gives off" several branches 
which supply that organ with blood, while one artery, of consider- 
able size, emerges from the posterio-dorsal side of the liver and 
supplies the muscles of the neck ; others go out from the anterior 
pai't of the liver, laterally and ventrally, to various parts of the head. 
Ten large branches go to the arms, one running through the center 
of each to the tip, sending oft"nuniei'ous lateral branches to the suckers 
and other parts. Other branches supply the various organs of the 
head. A small artery (fig. 2, go) arises from the anterior side of the 
heart, and turning backward, supplies the spermary {t). The large 
efferent vessels (branchio-cardiac) from the gills (bo) enter the 
anterio-lateral corners of the heart, their dilated basal portions serv- 
ing as auricles. 

The branchial auricles {cm), situated just behind the bases of the 
gills, are nearly globular, with a small, rounded, whitish elevation 
on the free posterior end ; dorsally they receive the blood from the 
saccular divisions of the anterior and posterior venae-cavje {vc, vc') 
and from the veins (y, vc') coming from the lateral portions of the 
mantle, behind the gills ; and they give off the large afterent vessels 
[bv) which go to and run along the dorsal side of the gills. 

The anterior vena-cava {vc) receives the venous blood from a large 
cephalic venous sinus, which surrounds the pharynx, at the bases of 
the arms,* and is connected with another large sinus situated at the 



* The greater part of the venoiis system can be easily injected by inserting a canula 
into this sinus, through the fold of the buccal membranes between the bases of the 
arms and the jaws, or between the outer and inner buccal membranes. It can also be 
easily injected through the vena-cava in the lower side of the head. 



A. E. Verrill — North Americaji Cephalopods. 339 

back of each eye-orbit. This cephalic sinus receives the blood from a 
large vein in the median line and near the inner surface of each arm. 
Numerous small veins from the head and eyes also enter this and the 
ophthalmic sinuses; others, entering the anterior vena-cava, fi'om 
each side, along its course, come from tlie muscles of the head, neck 
and siphon, from the ink-sac, anterior part of the liver, etc. Two veins 
of considerable size, which become sacculated posteriorly, arise from 
the intestine and ink-sac and run back to the sacculated divisions of 
the vena-cava. A small vein also extends along the dorsal side of 
the efferent sperm-duct (jt>). Two large pallial veins, uniting together 
close to the branchial auricles, on each side, come from the sides of 
the mantle (v, vc') ; one of these (vc') runs from the anterior part 
backward, and receives a branch (fig. 1) from the gill; the other (y), 
from the middle and posterior parts forward. The posterior vense- 
cavae (vc") arise mostly in the caudal fins and posterio lateral portions' 
of the mantle ; each one receives two large branches, one anterior and 
the other posterior, just at the point where it leaves the inner surface 
of the mantle. From this point they run forward parallel with the 
two posterior arteries, and converge to the region of the heart, where 
they join the great sacculated venous vessels (r) ; along a considerable 
portion of their course they expand and become large, elongated, fusi- 
form organs (r'), probably renal in function, but much firmer, more 
definite in form, and finer in structure than the more anterior renal 
organs. 

The gills {g) are long, triquetral, acute, in section they are nearly 
triangular, with the free ventral sides convex, and the dorsal side flat 
or concave, except along the middle, where a thin median membrane 
{g) arises from the central stem and unites the gill to the inner surface 
of the mantle. The gills are composed of large numbers of thin, 
transverse branchial larainjfi, which extend outward symmetrically on 
each side from the large median blood vessels (Jo, 5y), each lamina 
having a long-ovate or crescent-shaped outline. A somewhat firm 
central axis or column gives support to the laminae and the large 
blood vessels. The great afferent vessel (fig. 1, hv) starts from the 
branchial auricle (aw) and runs along the median-dorsal side of the 
gill, on the inner edge of the axial column ; a parallel vein (fig. 1), 
near the dorsal edge of the column, runs back and joins the lateral 
pallial vein {ysc). Each branchial leaf receives from the afferent 
vessel (Jy), a branch which runs along the dorsal edge, giving off at 
regular intervals small, transverse, parallel branchlets, which in turn 
give off minute capillary vessels along their sides, and fade out near 

Traks. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 42 June, 1881. 



340 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

the ventral border of the laminae. Parallel with these arise small, 
capillary, eiferent vessels, which join larger transverse vessels, between 
and parallel with the afferent ones ; these in tnrn join the larger effer- 
ent vessel that runs along the ventral edges of the laminae, and these 
marginal vessels ponr their contents into the large branchio-cardiac 
vessel {bo) which rnns along the middle of the gill, on the ventral 
side, and carries the purified blood to the heart. 

The buccal membranes, the pharynx, with its horny jaws, the 
odontophore, armed with seven rows of recurved teeth on the radula, 
and the thin, chitinous, lining membrane, which has numerous 
sharp, scattered, recurved teeth, both on the palate and in the throat, 
have already been described (pp. 311, 312). The oesophagus is a 
long, narrow, but dilatable tube, having two oblong salivary glands 
attached to it, within the bilobed anterior end of the liver (/)/ it then 
runs backward in a groove along the doi'sal side of the liver, to a 
point beyond its middle, where it j)asses obliquely through the liver, 
accompanied by the aorta (ao), and dorsally enters the stomach {S). 
The stomach consists of three parts, which are often sufficiently dis- 
tinct externally, when the stomach is empty, or nearly so, but when it 
is greatly distended with food (as often happens), the apparent divis- 
ions almost disappear and the whole becomes one great, long-pyriform 
sac. The first division (*S') or 'true stomach,' is plicated internally 
and has thickened glandular walls. It is supplied with blood by a 
conspicuously ramified vessel, the gastric artery (so). This lobe of 
the stomach is sometimes contracted into a firm glandular mass, 
strongly constricted where it joins the more saccular second stomach ; 
but I have seen specimens greatly distended with food in which it 
was scarcely or not at all distinguishable as a lobe, and seemed as thin 
and saccular as the other parts. The remainder of the stomach [S') 
usually has the form of a long, more or less swollen, ovate sac, 
tapering backward to a somewhat acute posterior end, which reaches 
back nearly to the end of the body ; anteriorly its most swollen 
portion is about opposite the junction with the first stomach, and 
just behind the heart; from this swollen portion it narrows rapidly, 
but extends forward along the posterior part of the liver, above and 
in advance of the heart, where it gives off the intestine. The 
more swollen anterior portion {k), of this sac, the second stomach, 
has a glandular lining and is distinctly radially plicated, and is, there- 
fore, clearly anatomically distinguishable from the thin and non-pli- 
cated posterior portion, or coecal lobe, {S') which seems to serve 
mainly for the temporary storage of large quantities of food. 



A. E. Yerrill — North American Cephalopods. 341 

The intestine (A) is a rather wide and thin tnbe, of moderate length ; 
the anal orifice is provided with two slender, clavate papillae. 
The ink-sac {i) is large, long-pyriform, with a long tapering duct [i') 
terminating just within the anal orifice. The liver {I) is a long, 
rather narrow, somewhat fusiform organ, slightly bilobed anteriorly 
and pointed posteriorly ; along about two thirds of its length, from 
the anterior end, there is a deep dorsal groove, in which the oesopha- 
gus and aorta are situated, before they pass through its substance; 
the posterior end is simple and pointed. 

In the appearance and structure of the internal reproductive organs 
the sexes differ greatly. In the female (pi. XL, figs. 3, 3a ; pl.XLI, fig. 
1), the single large oviduct [od, od'), situated on the left side, passes 
over the dorsal side of the base of the gill and terminates in a 
large ear-shaped external oi'ifice (op), nearly surrounded by a broad 
membranous flap. The portion of the oviduct behind the base of the 
gill is enveloped by a large, swollen, bilobed, nidamental gland {x'), 
which is abundantly supplied with blood-vessels, and internally is 
composed of a large number of thin, close, parallel lamellfe. Two 
very large, oblong, accessory nidamental glands {xx) lie, side by 
side, loosely attached, nearly in the middle of the ventral side, cover- 
ing and concealing the heart and most of the renal organs ; each of 
these has a groove along the ventral side and a slit in the anterior end ; 
internally they are composed of great numbers of thin lamelliB. In front 
of, and partially above the anterior ends of these, and attached to the 
intestine and ink-sac, there is another pair of accessory glands (x), 
roundish in form, with a large ventral opening, and having, in fresh 
specimens, a curiously mottled color, consisting of irregular red and 
dark brown blotches, on a pale ground. Their internal structure is 
made up of fine follicles. 

The ovary (ov) is large and occupies a large portion of the cavity 
of the body posteriorly, running back into the posterior cavity of the 
pen, and in the breeding season, extending forward nearly to the 
heart. In the breeding season, the thin convoluted portion of the 
oviduct {ov') is found distended with great numbers of eggs. At 
the same time the large glands (.r'), around the oviduct, and the acces- 
sory nidamental glands (cc, xx), destined to furnish the materials for 
the formation of the egg-capsules, and for their attachment, are very 
turgid and much larger than at other times. 

The male (PI. XL, figs. 1, 2) has no organs corresponding in posi- 
tion to the two pairs of accessory nidamental glands of the female, 
but the single efferent spermatic duct or ' penis' (p) occupies the same 



342 A. M Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

position, on the left side, as the terminal part of the oviduct of the 
female. It is, however, a much more slender tube, extending farther 
forward beyond the base of the gill, and its orifice is small and simply 
bilabiate. It extends backward, over the dorsal side of the base of the 
gill, to a bilobed, long-pyriform organ, consisting of a spermatophore- 
sac {ss) and a complicated system of glands and ducts {pr, vd), 
united closely together and enclosed in a special sheath ; in these the 
spermatophores are formed. These organs consist of the following 
parts : 

1. The vas-deferens (vd), which starts posteriorly from a small 
orifice (not figured) in the thin sheath of peritoneal membrane (pt) 
investing the testicle (t); it passes forward along the side of the 
spermatophore-sac, to which it is closely adherent, and thi-oughout 
most of its length it is thrown into numei'ous close, short, transverse, 
flattened folds ; anteriorly it joins the vesiculai-seminales. 

2. The vesiculse-seminales (fig. 2, pr, in part) consist of three large 
curved vesicles, closely coiled together, and having thickened, gland- 
ular walls ; the first two are short and broad, the third is elongated ; 
from the latter goes a short duct, which unites with the duct from the 
prostate gland to form the spermatic duct. 

3. The prostate gland (pr, in part) is broad-ovate and consists of 
two rounded lobes, one large and the other small, which are closely 
united to and enclosed between the vesiculae-seminales. 

4. The spermatic duct, formed by the union of the ducts from the 
vesicuLie-seminales and prostate glands, is a nearly straight tube ; 
it passes backward between the prostate glands and spermatophore- 
sac, close alongside of the vas-deferens (vd), to which it is closely 
bound down ; it enters the spermatophore-sac (ss) nehv its posterior end, 
at an acute angle. Even at its origin it contains spermatophores. 

5. The spermatophore-sac (ss) is a long, capacious, pyriform or 
somewhat fusiform, thin-walled sac, pointed at its posterior end; its 
anterior end is directly continuous with the long efferent duct (p), 
which is often rather wide at its origin, but tapers to a narrow ante- 
rior end. The terminal orifice is slightly bilabiate. 

These organs receive blood through a special artery (fig. 2, po) 
which arises from the posterior aorta just back of the heart. After 
reaching the genital organs it divides into several branches : one 
goes forAvard along the side of the efferent duct ; one to the pros- 
tate glands and vesiculse-seminales; one to the vas-deferens and 
adjacent parts. 

Specimens taken in May, in the breeding season, have the efferent 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 343 

duct and the spermatophore-sac crowded with the spermatophores. 
In the spermatophore-sac, which is then much distended by them, 
they lie closely packed in a longitudinal position, with their larger 
ends pointing somewhat outward toward the surface, and can be 
plainly seen through the transparent walls of the sac. 

The spermatophores are slender, club-shaped, with the larger end 
rounded, tapering gradually to the smaller end, which is usually a 
little expanded at the tip and has a very small filament. They vary 
(in alcohol) from 8 to 10'""^ in length and from *4 to •5'"'" in the great- 
est diameter. They contain a coiled rope of spermatozoa in the larger 
end, and a complicated apparatus for automatically ejecting this rope, 
in the smaller portion. 

The 'testicle,' or spermary [t), is a compact, pale yellow, long, 
flattened organ, extending from the stomach (*S') nearly to the end of 
the pen, in the posterior concavity of which it lies ; a band of fibrous 
tissue, continuous with its sheath, extends from its posterior end into 
the hollow tip of the pen, to which it is attached. An arterial 
vessel, the spermatic artery (PI. XL, fig. 2, go), which arises directly 
from the anterior edge of the heart, runs along the median dorsal 
line of the spermary and sends off" numerous branches to the right 
and left (fig. 2, t). This artery is accompanied by a spermatic vein 
which is closely united to it. 

LoligO breviS Blainville. 

Loligo hrevis Blainv., Journ. de Phys., March, 1823 (t. D'Orb.); Diet. des. Sci. nat., 
vol. xxvii, p. 145, 1823. 
D'Orbigny, Oephal. Acetab , p. 314, Loligo^ pi. 13, figs. 4-6 (copied from Lesueur), 

pi. 15, figs. 1-3 (orig.); pi. 24, figs. 14-19 (orig.) 
Tryon, Man. Conch., i, p. 142, pi. 52, figs. 143, 144 (after D'Orbigny.) 
Loligo hrevipinna Lesueur, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., vol. iii, p. 282, plate 
10, figs. 1-3, 1824. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., i, p. 142, pi. 51, figs. 128-130 (after Lesueur.) 

A small, short-bodied species, with short, rounded caudal fins, very 
short upper arms, and large chromatophoric spots. Body short, 
thick, well-rounded, rather blunt posteriorly. Anterior edge of 
mantle with a well-developed median dorsal lobe, and well-marked 
lateral angles. Fins broad transversely, short, less than half the length 
of the mantle ; outer edges well-rounded ; posterior end very obtuse. 
Arms all short, the two upper pairs much shorter than the two 
lower, the dorsal pair very short, considerably shorter than the 
upper lateral ones ; ventral and lower-lateral arms nearly equal in 
length. The dorsal arms are strongly compressed, with a well- 
marked thin dorsal keel; those of the second pair squarish at base, 



344 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalo2yods. 

without a keel ; those of the third pair are strongly compressed, bent 
outward at base, and furnished with a higli median keel, starting 
from the base, but highest in the middle ; ventral arms triangular at 
base, with a wade membrane on the upper angle, wliich expands at 
the base, and connects them with the third pair; a narrower mem- 
brane runs along the ventral margins. Tentacular arms rather stout 
at base ; compressed farther out, in extension about as long as the 
body ; club well-developed, about twice as broad as the rest of the 
arm ; its dorsal keel is thin, elevated, oblique, commencing at about the 
middle of the club and extending to the tip. The larger tentacular 
suckers are very regularly arranged in four rows, of 8 to 10 each, the 
lateral ones being not very much smaller than the median ones. 
The distal part of the club is covered with four regular rows of small 
suckers, and there is a terminal group of smaller, smooth-rimmed 
ones. The larger median suckers are broad cup-shaped, rather 
larger than the largest suckers of the lateral arms ; their horny rims 
are armed with regular, sharp, incurved teeth, smaller on the inner 
side of the sucker, but there are few or no small teeth alternating 
with the larger ones. The lateral suckers are relatively large, deep 
cup-shaped, oblique, with very sharp incurved teeth on the outer 
margin. The membranous borders of the large suckers are covered 
with minute, sharp, chitinous- scales. 

The suckers of the short arms are very deep and oblique, cup- 
shaped ; their rims are much the highest on the outer and distal side, 
where the edge is divided into several broad, bluntly rounded denti- 
cles, separated by narrow intervals. 

The pen is short, with a broad-lanceolate blade ; the narrow part 
of the shaft is short ; a thin border, widening backward to the blade, 
commences about half way between the tip and the proper blade ; the 
latter is broad and thin, marked with divergent lines ; posterior end 
obtuse. 

The color is peculiar. It consists, in alcoholic specimens, of dark 
purplish chroraatophores, pretty uniformly and regularly scattered 
everywhere on the body, on a pale ground-color ; when expanded the 
chroraatophores are large and rounded; above the eyes they are so 
closely crowded as to form dark blotches ; they also cover the outer 
surfaces of all the arras ; under side of caudal fin white. 

In alcohol, a medium-sized specimen measures, from tip of tail to 
base of dorsal arms, 80"'" ; total length of mantle Tl'"'™ ; breadth 
of body, 22""" ; breadth of caudal fin, 52"™ ; length of fin, 39"'" ; length 
of dorsal arms, from base, 17""; of second pair, 23""; of 3d pair, 
31"" ; of ventral arms, 31"'" ; of tentacular arms, 46"" ; of club, 22"°^. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Gephalopods. 



345 



One specimen ( $ ) Irom Charlotte Harbor, Fla., is much larger 
than usual. It has the mantle 130'"'" long; diameter of body, 36"""; 
length of dorsal arms, 45""" ; of 2d pair, 55"'"' ; of 3d pair, 65'"'" ; 
of tentacular arms, 145""". 

This species appears to have a wide distribution along the warmer 
parts of the American coast. The original specimen, described by 
Blainville, was from Brazil. D'Orbigny records it from Rio Janeiro. 
It extends northward to Delaware Bay. I have also seen specimens 
from Florida and from Mobile Bay, Alabama. 

Loligo brevis. — Specimens examined. 



41 
641 



Locality. 



Hampton, Ya 

St. Jolm's River, Fla.. 
Charlotte Harbor, Fla. 

Mobile, Alabama 

Texas 



Collected by 



Dr. Marmion 
S. F. Baird 



Dr. Nott 
Wurdemann 



When rec'd. 



1880 



Jan. 1857 



Rec'd from. 



U. S. Nat. Mus. 
Mus. Comp. Zool, 



Sp 


jclmena. 


Ho. 


Sex. 


1 


? 


1 


? 


2 


S 


3 


? 


6 





Sepioteuthis sepioidea D'Orb. 

Loligo sepioidea Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat., xxvii, p. 146, 1823. 

Sepioteuthis sepioidea D'Orbigny, Ceph. Acetab., p. 298, Sepioteuthes, pi. 7, tigs. 
6-11; Hist. L'lle de Cuba, Moll, p. 34, 1853. 
Gray, Catal. Moll. Brit. Mus., i, p. 81, 1849. 

Tryon, Man. Conch., i., p. 153, pi. G3, fig. 216. (Description copied from Gray ; 
figure from D'Orbigny). 

Although this species has not been recorded from north of Cape 
Hatteras, it is introduced here, because its common occurrence at 
the Bermudas and Florida renders it probable that it will, at times, 
be found farther north. 

It differs from the related species in having a pen without any 
marginal thickenings ; the lateral fins commence at a short distance 
behind the mantle edge (5'""" to 8"'"') and, taken together, have a 
long-rhomboidal figure, broadest nearly in the middle, and obtuse 
posteriorly ; the sessile arms have wide marginal membranes ; the 
dorsal arms are compressed, and much shorter than the others ; the 
lower lateral arms are much the largest, with a strong dorsal keel ; 
the suckers on the sessile arms are so crowded as to appear almost 
as if in four rows. 

The tentacular club bears four regular rows of large suckers, the 
median ones but little larger than the lateral ; small distal suckers in 
four regular rows, the lower ones largest. The larger suckers have 
regular, rather long and slender teeth, those on the inner edge 



346 



A, E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



smaller. The suckers of the sessile arms are deep, very oblique, with 
a high rim, which has on the outer margin a number of regular, 
long, slender teeth, rather close together. 

The whole surface is rather regularly and closely spotted with 
purple chromatophores. 

The eggs are large, 5""" to 8""" in diameter, and comparatively few 
in number. In one female (No. 379) taken in July, the oviduct was 
distended with the eggs, which have a reticulated surface before 
reaching the glandular portion. This female had spermatophores 
attached to and around an elevated area on the inner ventral surface 
of the inner buccal membrane. 

The oviduct is lai'ge and its external orifice has a wide ear-shaped 
border, more complicated than in LoUgo. The nidamental glands 
correspond nearly with those of Loligo, but are relatively larger. 
In some of the males, taken in July, the spermatophore-sac and a 
saccular dilation near the orifice of the eiferent duct, were filled with 
spermatophores, much like those of Loligo. 

The male has the left ventral arm hectocotylized much as in Loligo. 
The stems of the suckers, for a considerable distance, toward the tip 
of the arm, become long, stout, conical, and many of them, in both 
rows, lack the rudimentary suckers. 

This species is widely distributed along the tropical coasts of 
America, and throughout the West Indies. Martinique (Blainville) ; 
Honduras (Gray). 

Specimens examined. 



44 

379 

62 



Locality. 



Bermudas ... 

Key West, Fla. 

Fort Jefferson, Fla.. 
Cuba. 



G. Brown Goode 
Dr. J. B. Holder 
D. P. Woodbury 
Professor Poey 



Date. 

1878 

1861 

July, 1859 



Rec'd from 


G. 


B. 


G. 


Mus. 

11 


0. 


Zool. 

11 



Specimens. 
No. Sex. 



1 

2 1. 5 , br. 

1 1. 9 , br. 

2 S , juv. 



The genus Sepiotetithis is closely related to Loligo in all external 
characters, but its fins extend along nearly the whole length of the 
mantle, and the body is stouter, more ovate, and less pointed behind 
than in Loligo, so that the form is somewhat like that of Sepia. 
The pen is thin and lanceolate, nearly as in I^oligo, but in many 
species the blade is thickened toward the margins. The internal 
anatomy is, however, very difterent from T^oligo, in several respects. 
The ovary is short and thick, and confined more to the posterior por- 
tion of the body. The eggs are comparatively few and very large, 
being 5"'"' to 8""" in diameter, in our species. 



A. E. VerriU — N'orth American Cephalopods. 347 

Family SEPIOLID^ Keff. 

Kefferstein, in Bronn, Thier-Eeich, iii, p. 1443, 1866. 
Gill, Arrangement of Families of Mollusca. p. 2, 1871. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., i, pp. 102, 155, 1879. 

Body short, thick, bluntly rounded posteriorly. Fins large, sepa- 
rate, laterally attached, on the middle of the sides^ of the body. 
Siphon with small internal valve; no dorsal bridles. A large bra- 
chial cavity, extending back beneath the eye, into which the ten- 
tacular arms can be more or less retracted. Pen little developed, 
lanceolate, not reaching the end of the mantle. Integument beneath 
the eye thickened so as to be iised as a false eye-lid, in addition to 
the transparent skin over the eye. A lachrymal pore in front of each 
eye ; a brachial pore between the third and fourth pairs of arras. 
Eggs large, few, not enclosed in capsules. Accessory nidamental 
glands well developed. Branchial chamber divided into two cavities 
by a median ])artition or septum, which extends forward to the 
base of the siphon. This family is, in many respects, closely related 
to Loliglnidm, but differs widely from the latter in its visceral anat- 
omy. 

SEPIOLA Leach. 

SepioJa Leach, Zool. Miscel., iii. p. 137, 1817 (t. Gray). 
D'Orbigny. Ceph. Aoetab., p. 224. 
Gray, Catal. Moll. Brit. Miis., i, p. 91, 1849. 

Body short, stout, rounded posteriorlj\ Fins large, narrowed at 
base. Mantle united directly to the head by a large, dorsal commis- 
sure; lateral connective cartilages of the mantle elongated, fitting 
into elongated margined pits on the base of the siphon. Siphon with 
an internal valve. A brachial aquiferous pore between the bases of 
the third and fourth pairs of arms, on each side. A lachrymal pore in 
front of each eye. Buccal membrane with seven lobes, without suck- 
ers. Tentacular arms more or less retractile into large cavities below 
the eyes ; club with numerous, very small, nearly equal, long-pedi- 
celled suckers, in eight or more rows ; rims not toothed. The males 
differ from the females in having some of the middle suckers of the 
lateral arms much enlarged. 
Sepiola leUCOptera Verrill. (Butterfly Squid.) 

Verrill, Amer. .Tourn. Sci., vol. xvi, p. 378, 1878. 

Tryon, Man. Conch., i, p. 158, 1879. (Description copied from preceding). 

Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci., xix, p. 291, pi. 15, figs 4 and 5, April, 1880. 

Plate XXXI, figures 4, 5. Plate LIV, figure 4. 
Species rather small; the largest specimens observed are probably 
Trans. Conn. Acau., Vol. Y. 42 June, 1881. 



348 A. E. Verrill — N'orth American Cephalopods. 

full-grown. Body short, thick, swollen, with the mantle smooth. 
Ventral surface, in the middle, with a large, somewhat flattened, 
brown, heart-shaped or shield-shaped area, bordered with blue, and 
surrounded, except in front, by a silvery white band, having a pearly 
or opalescent luster. Eyes large, with roundish pupils. Fins large, 
thin, broadly rounded, in the living specimens nearly as long as the 
body; the posterior lobe readies nearly to the end of the body ; the 
anterior edge extends beyond the front of the mantle to the eye. 
The anterior edge of the mantle is einarginate beneath ; it recedes 
laterally to a great extent; above, it is broadly attached to the head. 
Sessile arms, largely webbed, short ; upper ones shortest ; third pair 
longest ; suckers in two rows. Tentacular arms slendei", tapering, 
extending back to the end of the body; club not wider than the arm, 
with very minute suckers, in many rows. 

Upper surface of the body opalescent in some lights, thickly spot- 
ted with orange-brown, spots most numerous in the middle line and 
extending to the upper surface of the head ; some also occur on the 
outer surfaces of the arms ; anterior part of the head white ; fins, 
arms and extremity of body translucent bluish white ; upper surface 
of the eyes opalescent, with silvery blue and red tints ; head, beloAV 
the eyes, silvery white ; above the eyes, blue. 

The largest specimen, ( $ ) taken in 1879, (PI. XXXI, fig. 5), wlien 
living had the head, above, in front of the eyes, whitish, with a few^ 
chromatophores ; back and the base of the fins thickly spotted with 
brown ; posterior part of the back with an emerald-green iridescence. 
Sides of the body, below the fins, and posterior end of the body, 
silvery white. A large shield-shaped ventral area of brown, with a 
bright blue iridescence, and bordered with a band of brilliant blue, 
occupies most of the lower surface. Fins, transparent wiiitish, except 
at base. Lower side of head, siphon and outer bases of the arms, 
light brown. Eyes blue above, green below. The fins are large, 
nearly as long as the body. 

Length of the original type-specimen ( $ ), to the base of the arms, 
14""", in nleohol; of mantle, above, 8'"'"; breadth, 7"""; breadth 
across fins, 16""". The largest specimen, of 1879, is ;U""" (1-25 inch) 
long from end of body to base of arms ; breadth of body, 25""" (1 inch) ; 
length of arms, 19"'"> (-75 inch). 

Tlie male (fig. 5) of this species differs from the female in having 
a group of three or four decidedly and abru|)tly larger suckers on the 
middle of the third pair of ai-ms, (PI. LIV, fig. 4) ; the other suck- 
ers, along the middle portion of these arms, are also larger than on 
the other arms. 



A. E. Yerrill — North American Cephalopods. 



349 



This species is an exceedingly benutif nl one, when living, owing to 
the elegance and brilliancy of its colors and the gracefnlness of its 
movements. In swimming it moves its fins in a manner analogous to 
the motion of the wings of a butterfly. This fact, and its bright 
colors, suggested the English name that I have applied to it. 

Three specimens, two very young, wtn-e taken by the writer and 
party, of tlie U. S, Fish Com., in the trawl-net, 30 miles east from 
Cape Ann, Mass., in 110 fathoms, August, 1878, One larger male 
was taken by us off Cape Cod in 122 fathoms, with the bottom tem- 
perature 41° F., August, 1879. The largest specimen seen was a 
male, taken in the same region, Sept. 10, 1879, in 94 fathoms. It was 
associated with Octoptis Bairdii and Ross/a suhleuis. 



Locality. 



194 I Gulf of Maine 
303 Off Cape Cod 
342 Off Cape Cod 



110 

122 

94 



When Collected, 



Aug. 31, 1878 
Aug. 21. ]8'79 
Sept. lO; 1879 



Kecelved Irom 



U. S. F. Com. 
U. S. F. Com. 
U. S. F. Com. 



Specimens. 
No. Sex. 



ROSSI A Owen. 
Roasia Owen, Trans. Zool Soc. London, 1828 (t. Gray); Owen, in J. Ross, Second 
Arctic Voyage, Appendix, p. xcii, pi. 100, 1835. 
D'Orbigny, Cephal. Acetab., p. 242. 
Gray, Catal. Moll. Brit. Mus., i, p. 88, 1849. 

Mantle-edge free from the head dorsally, adhering by a longitudi- 
nal, ovate or horse-shoe-shaped connective cartilage, having a median 
and two lateral grooves, fitting into corresponding grooves on the 
cai'tilage of the mantle ; two lateral, oblong, ridge-like cartilages, one 
on each side, also fit into ovate cartilage pits on the base of the 
siphon. No olfactory crests. Pupils oblong or crescent-shaped, lon- 
gitudinal. A false eye-lid below the eye. A pore in front of each 
eye, and one, on each side, between the bases of the third and fourth 
pairs of anus. Tentacular arras more or less retractile into large 
cavities at their bases, extending back beneath the eyes; club well 
developed, with numerous, nearly equal suckers, forming eight or 
more rows ; rims not toothed ; borders scaled. Buccal membrane 
with only six lobes, without suckers. The males differ from the 
females in having:; larger suckers on the middle of the lateral arms. 



Rossia megaptera, sp. nov. 

Plate XXXVIIl, figure 1. Plate XLVl, figure 6. 
Body short, broad, dejjressed, covered with a soft, flabby integument, 



350 A. E. Verrill — North Auterican Cephalopods. 

which forms a loose border posteriorly ; the front edge of the mantle 
extends forward dorsally into a prominent angle, bnt recedes very 
much ventrally. Fins very large and broad ; their anterior insertions 
being but little back of the antero-lateral edge of the mantle, and 
their posterior insertions close to the end of the body ; the free bor- 
ders of the fins are thin and undulated, extending forward anteriorly 
beyond the edge of the mantle, while the length, from base to outer 
edge, is about equal to the breadth of the back between the bases of 
the fins. 

Head very large and broad, the width exceeding that of the body. 
Eyes very large and prominent ; lower eyelids well developed, but 
not much thickened. Tentacles remarkably long and slender, in ex- 
tension about twice as long as the head and body together. The 
tentacular club is somewhat tliicker than the rest of the arm, rather 
long, narrow-lanceolate, tapering to the tip, and covered with nu- 
merous minute, globular suckers, arranged in many rows (PI. XLVI, 
fig. 6, b-d). Sessile arms of moderate length, rounded, very slender 
at tip ; the 1st, 2d and 3d pairs are successively longer, while the 4th 
or ventral pair is about equal to the first. Suckers, (PI. XLVI, fig. 
6, a), rather small, arranged in two rows on all the arms. On all the 
arms the suckers are similar but are a little larger on the 3d pair. 
They are nearly globular, with a rather wide aperture, which is sur- 
rounded by a border covered with numerous small scales, arranged 
in many rows ; the scales of the marginal series are larger and project as 
fine denticles around the aperture. Color purplish brown, with rather 
large chocolate-brown chromatophores ; outer portion of fins pale, 
thin and translucent ; edges of mantle, siphon, under side of head 
and arms, and greater part of tentacular arms whitish, with only 
minute chromatophores. 

Measurements of Rossia megaptera. 

Inches. Millimeters. 
Length, end of body to dorsal edge of mantle, exclusive of mem- 
brane, --_ 1-25 32 

Length, end of body to ventral edge of mantle, . _ -95 24 

Length, end of body to base of dorsal arms, -.-_ 2-25 57 

Length, end of body to tip of dorsal arms, 3-40 86 

Length, end of body to tip of 2d pair, 3 75 95 

Length, end of body to tip of 3d pair, 4-08 1 03 

Length, end of body to tip of 4th pair, 3-75 95 

Length, end of body to tentacular arms, 7-45 188 

Breadth of body and fins together, .. .. 2-50 63 

Breadth of body between bases of fins, -85 22 

Breadth of body beneatli fins, exclusive of membrane, 111) 28 



A. E. Verrlll — North American Cephalopods. 351 

Measurements of Rossia meijajjtera. {Continued.) 

Inches. Millimeters. 



Breadth of head, across eyes, 1 

Breadth of fins, antero-posteriorly, 1 

Length of fins, base to outer edge, 

Diameter of eyes, 

Diameter of larger suckers of lateral arms .. 

Diameter of larger suckers of club, _. 

Breadth of club, 

Length of club, . 



40 36 

08 27 

85 22 

75 19 

06 1-5 

01 -25 

16 4 

95 24 



OiF the southern coast of Newfoundland, in 150 fathoms, Capt. K. 
Markuson and crew, schooner " Notice," June, 1880. 

This species is remarkable for tlie great size of the fins and eyes, and 
for the length of the tentacular arms. It appears to be a species spec- 
ially adapted for inhabiting greater depths than the species hitherto 
discovered. It has the same soft, flabby integument observed in Octo- 
pus lentus and Stauroteuthis syrtensis, found at similar depths. 
But the looseness of the skin may be due in part to the condition of 
the specimens when preserved. The suckers on the tentacular arms 
are remarkably small. 

Rossia Hyattl Verrill. 

Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci., vol. xvi, p. 208, 1878. 

Tryon, Man. Conch., i. p. 160, 1879. (Description compiled from preceding). 

Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci., xix, p. 291, pi. 15, figs. 1 and 2, April, 1880. 

Plate XXYII, figs. 8,9. Pl.vte XXX, fig. 1. Plate XXXI, figs. 1, 2. Plate 

XLVI, FIG. 5. 

Body subcylindrical, usually broader posteriorly ; in preserved 
specimens, variable in form according to contraction. Dorsal sur- 
face covered with small, conical, scattered, whitish papillae, which are 
also found on the upper and lateral surfaces of the head and bases of 
the arms ; those around the eyes largest ; one on the mantle, in the 
median line, near the front edge, is often elongated. Front border of 
mantle sinuous, sliglitly advancing in the middle, above. P'ins moder- 
ately large, nearly semicircular, attached from the posterior end for 
about foui'-fifths the whole length, the front end having a small, round- 
ed free lobe. The distance from the posterior junction of the fins to 
end of body is less than that from the anterior junction to edge of 
mantle, the center of the fin being at about the middle of the body. 
Siphon elongated, conical, with a small opening. Head depressed, 
more than half the length of the body. Eyes large, the lower eyelid 
prominent, but not mucli thickened. Sessile arras short, united at 



352 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

their bases by a short Aveb, which is absent between the ventral 
arms ; the dorsals are shortest ; tlie third pair the longest and largest ; 
the second pair and ventrals about equal in length. Suckers, (PI. 
XLVI, fig. 5, «), numerous, sub-globular, not very small, the margin 
bordered with several rows of minute scales; near the base of the 
arms they are biserial, tliere being usually four to six thus arranged 
in each row ; then, along the rest of the length of the arms they 
become more crowded and form about four rows, those in the two 
middle rows alternating with those in the marginal rows ; toward the 
tip they become very small and crowded, especially on the dorsal and 
ventral arms. The number of suckers varies Avith age, but on one of 
the laro-er specimens tliey were as follows : on eacli dorsal arm, sixty ; 
on one of second pair, tifty-live ; of third pair, fifty-three; of ventral, 
sixty-five. In this specimen ( ? ), the tliird arm of the right side and 
ventral arm of left side were abruptly terminated (accidentally), 
while the others were tapered to acute points. The tentacular arms, 
in preserved specimens, will extend back to the posterior end of the 
body; the naked portion is smooth, somewhat triquetral, with the outer 
side convex and the angles rounded ; terminal portion widening rather 
abruptly, long ovate-lanceolate, curved and gradually tapered to the 
tip • the sucker-bearing portion is bordered by a wide membrane on the 
upper and a narrow one on the lower margin ; the suckers (Plate 
XLVI, fig. 5, h, c,), are very small, sub-globular, crowded in about 
eight to ten rows in the widest portion. 

The males differ from the females in the relatively greater size of 
the suckers on the middle of the lateral and ventral arms, those 
toward the tips becoming somewhat abruptly smaller, while in the 
female they decrease more gradually. 

Color, pinkish, thickly spotted with purplish brown above, paler 
and more sparsely spotted beneath and on the outside of the long 
arms • the inner surface of the arms and front edge of the mantle are 

pale. 

Length from bases of arms to posterior end of body, 40""" ; of body, 
25 ; of head, 15 ; breadth of body, 17 ; of head 17 ; length of fins, 15 ; of 
insertion, 11 ; breadth of fin, 8; front of fin to edge of mantle, 5 ; 
length of free portion of dorsal arms, 12*5 ; of second pair, 15 ; of 
third pair, 18; of ventrals, 13; of tentacular arms, 40; breadth of 
dorsal arms, at base, 3-5; of second pair, 3*5; of third pair, 4; of 
ventrals, 3-5 ; of tentacular arms, at base, 2 ; at expanded portion, 
3-5 • length of latter, 10-5 ; diameter of largest suckers of sessile 
arms, 0*9 ; length of free portion of siphon, 7""". 



A. E. Verrlll — North American Cejihalopods. 



353 



One of the largest alcoholic specimens (9), from station 218, has 
the mantle 31"'"^ long, dorsally ; greatest breadth beneath the fins, 
20"""; length of fins longitudinally, 18"'"' ; transverse breadth of fins, 
11"'"' ; length from end of body to tip of dorsal arms, 57""" ; to tip of 
second pair of arms, 59""" ; of third pair, 64""" ; of fourth pair, 59""". 

Eossia Hyatti. — Specimens exuTnined. 



Locality. 



30. 31 Off Salem, Mass 

33 OfE Cape Ann, 13 m 

42-46 Off Cape Sable, N. S., 30 m. 

48 Off Cape Sable, N. S., 20 m. 
85-86 Off Halifax, N. S., 26 m... 

j Gulf of Maine and 

Massachusetts Bay. 



8 m. 



Off Cape Ann, 14 m. 
Off Gloucester, Mass, 

Off Cape Ann, 6^ m. 

Off Cape Ann, 7 m 

Off Gloucester, Mass 

Off Gloucester, Mass., 5 m, 
Off Cape Ann, 6 m 



130 
156 
163 
164 
181 
184 
211 
214 jOff Cape Ann, 7 m. 

217 i Off Cape Ann, 6 m 

2 18 iOff Cape Ann. 6 m. 

223 jSouth of Cape Ann, 7 m.- 
234 [Off Gloucester, Mass , 5^ m, 
238 Off Gloucester, Mass., 4| m, 



48 
90 
88-90 
59 
101 



49 
42 
73 
75 
45 
45 
60 
57 
45 
45 
47 
43 
43 



264 lOff Cape Cod, 15m 80 

276 jOff Cape Cod, 6+ m 47 

324 , Off Cape Cod, li m ; 45 

364 Off Cape Cod, 15 m \ 70 

372 Off Chatham, Mass., 21m.. 70 



241 

372 

39 Gl. 



mud 

mud 

sand and mud 

rocky 

fine sand 



mud 

sand and mud 

fine sand 

fine sand 

mud 

mud 

soft dark-br. mud 

fine mud and sand 

soft dark-br. mud 

soft dark-br. mud 

soft brown mud 

soft brown mud 

soft brown mud 



blue mud 
blue mud 

sand 

sand 

sand 



Gloucester Fisheries. 

N. Lat. 44" 20' W. Lono-. 59° , 60 

Off Miquelon I 1 I 7 

Off Gloucester, in Cod | . . 



When 
coil'd. 



1877 
Aug. 13 
Aug. 14 
Aug. 21 
Aug. 2 1 
Sept. 6 



1878 
Jul}- 23 
Aug. 15 
Aug. 16 
Aug. 16 
Aug. 29 
Aug. 29 
Sept. 17 
Sept. 17 
Sept 18 
Sept. 1 8 
Sept. 21 
Sept. 24 
Sept. 26 

1879 
July 29 
Aug. 1 
Sept. 1 
Sept. 18 
Sept. 19 



1878 
Dec. 
July.'79 



Rec'd Specimens, 
from No. Sex. 



U.S.F.C. 



1 1.5 



2i- 



U:l?:3j. 

2 1.? 



]-2 



3j- 

2j. 
li: 
1? 

4$ 

IJ- 

Ij. 5:1].? 

1? 

1 1.5 

11. 5:1 j. 

15 

1? 

2j. 



11.5 
11.2 
\\.6 

11. ?:3j. $ 
1 « 
2 



U 



IJ- 
Ij. 
11. 



This species has been taken in numerous localities, by the dredging 
parties of the U. S. Fish Commission, in 1877, 1878 and 1879, off 
Cape Cod ; in Mass. Bay, 40-50 fathoms ; off Cape Ann, in the Gulf 
of Maine, 50-100 fathoms; off Cape Sable, N. S., 88-92 fathoms; off 
Halifax, N, S., 57-100 fathoms, on a fine compact sand and mud bot- 
tom. It occurs in from 40 to 100 f^xthoms. It has also been received 
through the Gloucester halibut fishermen, from the Banks, off Nova 
Scotia. One specimen (lot 241), presented by Capt. Chris. Olsen, and 
crew, of the schooner " William Thompson " was from N. Lat. 44*^ 20' ; 



354 A. E. Verrill — North American CepJialopods. 

W. Long. 59°, in 60 fathoms; another from 7 fathoms, off Miquelon I., 
(lot 372), M^as presented by Capt. C. D. Murphey and crew, of the 
schooner "Alice M. Williams." Its relatively large eggs (PI. XXVII, 
fig. 9) are laid in Angust and September, in small clusters, slightly 
attached together, in the large oscules or cavities of several species of 
sponges. 

It is frequently associated with Octopus Bairclii Y., and the 
following species. 

This species has a strong general resemblance to R. glaucopis 
Loven, as figured in the admirable work of G. O. Sars but the latter 
has shorter lateral arms, and the suckers of the sessile arms are in 
two rows, while they are four-rowed in our species. 

■RoSSia SUblevis Verrill. 

Rossia suhlevis Verrill, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xvi, p. 209, 1878. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., i, p. 160, 1879. (Description compiled from preceding.) 
Verrill, Amer. Journ. 8ci., xix, p. 291, pi. 15, %. 3, Apr., 1880: Bulletin Mus. 
Comp. Zool., viii, p. 104, pi. 3, figs. 2-4: pi. 7, fig. 4, 1881. 

Plate XXX, figure 2, $ . Plate XXXT, figure 3, $ . Plate XLVI, figure 4. 
Plate XLVII, figures 2-3, ? , figure 4, $ . 

Larger and relatively stouter than Rossia Hyatti., with the fins 
larger and placed farther forward, the rounded front edge of the large 
free lobe reaching nearly to the edge of the mantle. Head large 
and broad. Eyes very large. 

Sessile arms more slender and less unequal in size than in the 
preceding species, and with the suckers arranged in two regular rows 
throughout the whole length. Anterior edge of the mantle scarcely 
sinuous, advancing but little dorsally. Upper surface of the body 
and head neai'ly smooth, but in the larger specimens, especially 
the males, usually with a few very small whitish papillie, most 
numerous near the front edge of the mantle. Color, nearly as in the 
preceding species. 

The pen (Plate XLVI, figure 4) is small and thin, much shorter 
than the mantle. The shaft is narrow ; the blade is rather abruptly 
wider and rather shorter than the shaft ; its posterior portion is very 
thin, with the edge ill-defined. 

The males, when adult, can be easily distinguished from the 
females, by the larger size of the suckers along the middle of the two 
lateral pairs of arms (Plate XLVII, figure 4), and, to a less extent, 
of the ventral pair. These large suckers are oblong, with a groove 
or constriction around the middle, the part below the groove larger 



A. M Vern'li — North American Cepkalopods. 



355 



than that above it ; the aperture is small, ovate, with a smooth rim ; 
their pedicels are short and laterally attached. In the female the 
corresponding suckers are not only smaller but are diiFerently shaped, 
the basal portion being smaller than the upper portion. The suckers 
of the tentacular arms are very numerous, minute, shallow, cup- 
shaped^ with oblicpie rims and slender pedicels; they are nearly 
equal and appear to form eight to twelve rows. 

Young specimens, with the mantle less than 12'""' in length, can 
scarcely be distinguished sexually by external characters, and are 
not easily distinguished from the young of Jiossia Ilyattl., of 
similar size. 

One of the original specimens (?) measured, from the base of the 
arms to the end of the body, 46'"'" ; length of body, 31 ; of head, 15 ; 
breadth of body, 22 ; of head, 23 ; length of fins, 20 ; of their insertion, 
16; breadth of fins, 10; front edge of fin to edge of mantle, 2-5; 
length of free portion of dorsal arms, 16; of second pair, 17; of third 
pair, 20; of ventrals, 15; of tentacular arms, 25; breadth of dorsal 
arms at base, 3; of second pair, 3; of third, 3*5; of ventrals, 3-5; 
of tentacular arms, 3*5 ; of the terminal portion, 3'75 ; its length, 10 ; 
diameter of the largest suckers of sessile arms, '8 ; length of free 
portion of siphon, 7""". 

Measurements of Rossia suhlevis and R. Hyatti. in millimettrs. 



Sex ... 
Station 



Length of mantle, above 

Breadth of mantle 

Breadth across head 

Diameter of ej^es 

Length of a fin.. 

Length of its base 

Transverse breadth of a fin 

Length to base of dorsal arms*. 
" " " third pair 



tip 



ventral arms 

dorsal arms 

second pair 

" " •' third pair 

" " " ventral pair 

Length of tentacular club 

Its breadth 

Diameter of largest suckers of lateral arms. 



879 



29 
22 
26 
16 
21 

n 

14 
45 
46 
41 
64 
65 
66 
61 
9 
2-5 
2-2 



894 



32 
25 
30 
16 

24 
19 
15 
47 
47 
43 
71 
75 
78 
74 
15 
3 
1.1 



R. Hyatti. 



i 


S 


324 


218 


21 


31 


17 


19 


15 


20 


8 


9 


11-5 


17 


10 


12 


7 


10-5 


31 


45 


32 


43 


26 


39 


42 


58 


43 


59 


46 


64 


42 


60 


7 


10 


2 


2-5 


1-5 


.8 



* The length to the 'bases' of the arms, is from the posterior end of the body to the 
free edge of the basal web, between the arms ; that of the third pair is to the edge of 
the web, between the second and third pairs. The measurements are all from well 
preserved alcoholic specimens. 

Tr.\ns. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 43 June, 1881. 



356 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



One of the specitneus (No. 16), taken by Mr. Agassiz, in 357 
fathoms, is a young female differing somewhat from the others in 
having the arms sliorter, with the suckers more crowded, so that they 
apparently form more than two rows. Possibly this should be 
referred to E. Hyattl Verrill. Its back is smooth. All three speci- 
mens from this same region differ somewhat from those taken farther 
north, in shallower water, in having larger eyes and shoi'ter and 
stouter arms. 

Rossia suhlevis. — Specimens examined. 



84 

85, 86 

100 



161 
194 



264 
324 
364 



869 
870 
880 
893 
894 
895 
897 



310 
320 
321 



265 



Locality. 



Off Halifax, N. S., 26 miles 
Off Halifax, N. S., 26 miles 
Off Flalifax, N. S. 



Off Cape Ann, 6 miles 

Off Cape Ann, 33 miles... 



Off Cape Cod, 1 5 miles 

Off Cape Cod, 1 1 miles 

Off Cape Cod, 1 5 miles 

Off Newport, E. I. 
N. lat. W. long:. 



40° 02' 18"; 
40 02 36 ; 
39 48 30 ; 
39 52 20 ; 
39 53 00 : 



70° 23' 06' 

70 22 58 

70 54 00 

70 58 00 

70 58 30 



39 56 30 ; 70 59 45 
Off Chesapeake Bay 



Blake Exped. 
U. S. Coast Survey. 

39° 59' 16"; 70° 18' 30" 
32 33 15 ; 77 30 10 
32 43 25 ; 77 20 30 

Gloucester Fisheries. 
42° 49' ; 62° 57' 



101 
101 

42 



54 
110 



192 
155 



fine sand 
fine sand 
fine sand 



muddy 



blue mud 
sand 
sand 



fine sand and mud 
fine sand and mud 



252 fine sand and mud 



372 
365 
238 
157 



260 
257 
233 



250 



mud, flue sand 
mud, fine sand 
mud, fine sand 



When 
coil'd. 



Rec'd Specimens, 
from No. Sex. 



1877 U.S.F.C. 
Sept. 6 
Sept. 6 
Sept. 15 

1878 
Aug. 6 
Aug. 31 

1879 
July 29 
Sept. 1 
Sept. 18 



1880 
Sept. 4 
Sept. 4 
Sept. 13 
Oct. 2 
Oct. 2 
Oct. 2 
Nov. 16 



1880 
1880 
1880 



A. Agas. 



11. ?:lj. 
1 5 : 1 j. ? 
eggs & juv. 

11.^ 



lc?:ll. ?:3j. 
11.3 



U:5$ 

U:l? 

11.3 

U- 

1 1. 3 : Ij. ? 

11.3:11. S:5 

1 1. 3 [eggs 



1 ?ad. 
I ?ad. 

isj.? 



Jan.'79 U.S.F.C. 1 j 



This has been taken, by the dredging parties of the IT. S. Fish 
Commission, in the trawl-net, at various localities, in 1877, 1878, and 
1879, in 45 to 1 10 fathoms, off Massachusetts Bay, off Cape Cod, 
and off Halifax, N. S. It has been brought in by Capt. J. W. Col- 
lins and crew, of the schooner " Marion," (lot 265) from the banks 
off Nova Scotia. It was trawled in some numbers, and of both 



A. E. Verrill — JSTorth American Gephalopods, 357 

sexes, by the TJ. S. Fish Commission, in 1880, off Newport, R. I., in 
155 to 372 fathoms; and in November, 1880, by Lieut. Z, L. Tanner, 
on the "Fish Hawk," off the moulh of Chesapeake Bay, in 157 fath- 
oms. It was taken by Mr. Agassiz, on the "Blake," in 233-260 
fathoms, and as far south as lat. 32° 33' 15". 

This species very closely resembles the Rossia glaucopis Loven, 
of Northern Europe, as figured by G. O. Sars. The latter is, how- 
ever, more papillose, and has smaller eyes and head, if correctly 
figured, 

HETEROTEUTHIS Gray. 

Heteroteuthis (sub-genus) Gray, Catal. Moll. Brit. Miis., i, p. 90, 1849. 

The body is short, thick, rounded posteriorly. Fins large, with 
narrower bases, attached near the middle of the sides of the mantle. 
Head and eyes large. Anterior border of the mantle-edge free, dor- 
sally. Connective cartilages on the base of the siphon, with an ovate 
pit; lateral cartilages of mantle, simple, longitudinal ridges. Pen 
much shorter than the mantle, narrow anteriorly ; posterior blade 
small, slightly expanded laterally. Club of the tentacular arms well 
developed, with numerous suckers, in about eight rows, those in the 
lower marginal rows decidedly larger than the rest ; rims of the suck- 
ers with smooth edges ; the membranous edge of the aperture is 
denticulated by small, acute scales. Middle suckers of the lateral 
and ventral arms distinctly larger in the female ; in the male abruptly 
very much larger than on the others ; these suckers are deep, with a 
small, round, smooth rim, and with a raised zone ai'ound the middle. 
In the male the left doi-sal arm is hectocotylized by having much 
smaller and more numerous suckers, arranged in four rows, and by 
the development of the marginal membrane. 

Heteroteuthis tenera Verriii. 

Amer. .Jour. Sci., xx, p. 392, November, 1880; Proc. Nat. Mus., iii, p. .360, 1880 ; 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., viii, p. 103, pi. 3, figs. 5-5&, pi. 8, figs. 2-2(1, 3-3&, 1881. 
Plate XLYI, figures 2-'2rf, 3-3&. Plate XLVII, figures 5-56. 

A small and delicate species, very soft, translucent, and delicately 
colored when living. 

Body short, cylindrical, scarcely twice as long as broad, posteriorly ; 
usually round, but in strongly contracted, preserved specimens, often 
narrowed and even obtusely pointed ; front edge of mantle sometimes 
with a slight dorsal angle, in most cases emarginate. Fins very 
large, thin, longer than broad, the outer edge broadly rounded, the 



358 A. JEJ. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

anterior edge extending forward quite as far as the edge of the 
mantle, and considerably beyond the insertion of the fin, Avhich is 
itself well forward. The length of the tin is about two-thirds that of 
the body; the base or insertion of the fin equals aboiit one-half of 
the body-length ; the breadth of the fin is greater than one-half the 
breadth of the body. Head large, i-ounded, with large and prominent 
eyes ; lower eyelid slightly thickened. Arms rather small, unequal, 
the dorsal ones considerably shorter and smaller than the others. In 
the male, the left dorsal arm is greatly modified, and very difterent 
from its mate. Lateral and ventral arms are subequal. 

In both sexes, and even in the young, the suckers along the middle 
of all the lateral and ventral arms are distinctly larger than the rest, 
but in the larger males this disparity becomes very remarkable, the 
middle suckers (PI. XL VI, figs. 3a-3&) becominggreatly enlarged and 
swollen, so that eight to ten of the largest are often six or eight 
times as broad as the proximal and distal ones ; they are deep, 
laterally attached, M'ith a raised band around the middle, and a very 
small round aperture, furnished with a smooth rim. In the female 
the corresponding suckers on the lateral arms are about twace as broad 
as the rest. The suckers are in two regular row^s, on the lateral 
and ventral arms, in both sexes. In the male, the left dorsal arm 
becomes thickened and larger from front to back, and is usually 
curled backward ; its suckers become smaller and much more 
numerous than on the right arm, being arranged in four crowded 
rows, except near the base, where there are but two ; the sucker- 
stalks also become stout and cylindrical, or tapered, their diameter 
equalling that of the suckers (PI. XL VI, fig. 3 ; PI. XLVII, fig. 5). 
The right arm remains normal, with two alternating rows of suckers, 
regularly decreasing to the tip, as in both the dorsal arms of the 
female. Tentacular arms long, slender, extensible; club distinctly 
enlarged, usually curled in preserved examples (PI. XL VI, figs. 2a, 3). 
The suckers on the club are numerous, unequal, arranged in about 
eight close rows; those forming the two or three rows next the upper 
margin (PI. XLVII, figs. 5a-5b) are much larger than the rest, being 
three or four times as broad, and have rows of small scale-like den- 
ticles around the rims, the marginal ones larger. 

Color, in life, pale and translucent, with scattered rosy chromato- 
phores. In the acoholic specimens, the general color of the body, head, 
and arms is reddish, thickly spotted with rather large chromato- 
phores, which also exist on the inner surface of the arms, between the 
suckers, and to some extent on the tentacular arms and bases of the 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 359 

fins ; outer part of fins translucent white ; anterior edge of mantle 
with a white border. 

Pen small and very tliin, soft, and delicate. It is angularly 
pointed or pen-shaped anteriorly, the shaft narrowing backward ; a 
thin lanceolate expansion, or margin, extends along nearly the 
posterior half (PI. XLVI, fig. 2b). 

Upper jaw with a sharp, strongly incurved beak, without a notch 
at its base. Lower jaw with the tij) of the beak strongly incurved, 
and with a broad, but prominent, rounded lobe on the middle of its 
cutting edges (fig. 2c). ' 

Odontophore with simple, acute-triangular median teeth ; inner 
laterals simple, nearly of the same size and shape as the median 
except at base ; outer laterals much longer, strongly curved forward 
(fig. 2d.) 

Length of body 25 to 40""". One of the larger males measures, in 
alcohol, from the posterior end of the body to the dorsal edge of the 
mantle, 21""" ; to the free bases of the dorsal arms, 48""" ; to the inter- 
val between bases of second and third pairs, 49""" ; to bases of ventral 
arras, 46""" ; to tip of dorsal arms, 48""" ; of second pair, 51"^"' ; of third 
pair, 49""" ; of ventral arms, 46""" ; diameter of largest suckers 
of lateral arms, 2"'"'; length of fin at base, 11"""; extreme length of 
fin, 15-5"""; transverse breadth of fin (lower side), 10"""; diameter of 
eye, 9""" ; breadth of body, below fin, 17""" ; breadth of head, 17""". 

Twenty-seven specimens of this species were obtained by Mr. A. 
Agassiz, on the " Blako," in 1880, from six stations, ranging in depth 
from 71 to 233 fathoms. Later in the same season, over 200 specimens 
were secured by the wi'iter and others of the dredging party on the 
United States Fish Commission steamer " Fish-Hawk." It was par- 
ticularly abundant at stations 869, 870 and 871, in about 125 to 192 
fathoms, on the rapidly sloping outer bank, oif the coast, under the 
inner edge of the Gulf Stream, where the bottom consists of fine com- 
pact sand, with mud and shells. Both sexes occurred in about equal 
numbers, and also the young, of various sizes. It was also taken in 
considerable numbers at stations 865 to 867, in 65 fathoms; 872 to 
880, in 85 to 252 fathoms. It was also dredged off the mouth of 
Chesapeake Bay, in November, by Lieut. Z. L. Tanner, on the " F^ish 
Hawk," in 18 to 57 fathoms. 

It is easily distinguished from all the species of Rossia by the larger 
size of the suckers along the middle of the lateral arms ; by the 
inequality of the suckers on the tentacular clubs; and by the peculiar 
hectocotylized condition of the left dorsal arm of the male. The ex- 



360 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



istence of large ehromatophoi'es on the inner surface of the ai'ms, 
between the suckers, is also a good diagnostic mark, by which to dis- 
tinguish it from our species of Hossia, which have the corresponding 
parts nearly white, or with few and small chromatophores. 







Heteroteuthis tenera 


— Specimens examined. 






Stat. 


N 


Locality. 
Lat. W. Long. 


Depth, 
Fathoms. 


When received. 


Specimens. 
No. Sex. 






U. S. Fish Com. 


1 880 










Off Marthas Vineyard. 










865 


40° 


05' 70° 23' 


65 


Sept. 4, U. S. F. C. 


35 


7? 


806 


40 


05 18" 70 22 18" 


65 


" " " 


33 


69 


867 


40 


05 42 70 22 06 


64 


a 11 u 


43 


10$ 


869 


40 


02 18 70 23 06 


192 


.1 11 a 


20 + , 


3&$ 


870 


40 


02 36 70 22 58 


155 


a u a 


15 3 


17 ? 


871 


40 


02 54 70 23 40 


115 


11 a 11 


183:11 S:32j 


872 


40 


05 39 70 23 52 
Off Newjwrt, R. 1. 


86 




13 


2? 


873 


40° 


02' 70° 57' 


100 


a J3^ a 


53 


1 $ 


874 


40 


00 70 57 


85 


11 It a 


10 3 


6^ 


875 


39 


57 70 57 30" 


126 


11 a u 


13 




876 


39 


57 70 56 


120 


11 a 11 


83 


6$ 


877 


39 


56 70 54 18 


126 


11 a a 


63 


4S 


878 


39 


55 70 54 15 


142i 


a a a 


13 


IS 


879 


39 


49 30" 70 54 


225 


a a a 


6 




880 


39 


48 30 70 54 
Off Chesaxieake Bay. 


252 




23 




899 


37° 


22' 74° 29' 


57+ 


Nov. 16, " 


3 3 


2? 


900 


37 


19 74 41 


31 


a a a 


1 J- 




901 


37 


10 75 08 

Blake Expedition, 
U. S. Coast Survey. 


18 


11 a a 


21 3 


3$ 


313 


OfE Charlestou, S. C. 


75 


1880 


73 


5S 


314 


32° 


24' 78° 44' 


142 


1880 


23 


1? 


316 


32 


7 78 37 30" 


229 


1880 


15 


J- 


321 


32 


43 25" 77 20 30 


233 


1880 


52 




327 


34 


30 76 10 30 


178 


1880 


1 3 


3? 


345 


40 


10 15 70 4 30 


71 


1880 


2? 


i- 



Order II.— OCTOPODA Leach. 
Cephalopoda octopoda Leach, Zool. Miscel., hi, 1817 (t. Gray). 
Ferussac Tableau Syst., p. 18, 1821. 

D'Orbigoy, Tab. Method., p. 45, 1825; D'Orbigny, Cephal. Acetab., p. 1. 
Octocera Blaiav., Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. xxxii, 1824. 
Odojtia Gray, Cat. Moll. Brit. Mus., i, p. 3, 1849. 

Arms eight, similar, all furnished with suckers in one or two rows ; 
often more or less united by a web, without natatory crests. Suck- 
ers sessile, not oblique, destitute of horny rings or hooks. No 
tentacular arms. Head often larger than the body. Body short and 



A. M Verrill — North Ainerican Cephaiopods. 361 

thick, obtuse posteriorly, usually destitute of fins. Fins, when pres- 
ent, small, lateral, supported by an internal transverse cartilage. 
Mantle usually extensively united to the head by a dorsal commis- 
sure. Siphon without an internal valve. Branchial cavity divided 
into two parts by a median septum, extending forward to the base 
of the siphon, but interrupted posteriorly. No olfactory crests. Eyes 
united to the internal lining of the sockets, so as to be immovable, 
usually furnished with lids. No outer buccal membrane. Aquiferous 
pores and cavities usually absent ; cephalic pores sometimes present. 
Internal longitudinal shell or pen absent. An external shell is pres- 
ent only in the genus Argonauta, In this case it is formed as a 
secretion from the inner surface of the expanded distal portion of the 
two dorsal arms, of the female only, and serves mainly as a receptacle 
for the eggs. The right arm of the third pair is hectocotylized in the 
male. Sometimes the entire arm is modified and sometimes the tip 
only. 

Family PHILONEXID^E D'Orbigny. 

FMlonexidcB {pars} D'Orb., Moll. Y\v. et Fos., i, 199, 1845 (t. Gray). 
Gray, Catal. MoU. Brit. Mus., i, p. 24, 1849. 
Keffersteiu, ia Bronn, Thier-Reich., iii, 2 B., p. 1449, 1886. 

Body stout, oval, destitute of lateral fins. Branchial opening large. 
Edge of mantle united to the base of tlie siphon laterally by a com- 
plicated prominent cartilage or button fitting in a corresponding pit 
on the inner surface of the mantle. Dorsal commissure narrow. 
Head with aquiferous pores communicating with large aquiferous 
cavities. Arms simple, more or less united by webs. Suckers promi- 
nent. 

In the male, the hectocotylized arm is developed in a sac, the entire 
arm being modified, and usually, when perfected, it becomes detached 
from the body. Probably this arm is lost and regenerated each year. 

Parasira Steenstrup. 

Parasira Kefferstein, in Bronn, Thier-Reich., iii, p. 1449, 1866. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., i, p. 104. 

Body short, thick, pouch-like, usually ornamented with raised 
ridges. Mantle united directly to the head dorsally; laterally con- 
nected to the base of the siphon by a pit and raised cartilaginous 
tubercle on each side, which fit corresponding pits and tubercles, 
near the base of the siphon (something as a button fits into a buttoi 
hole), so that it can be separated only with considerable dil 









3G2 A. E. Verrill — North American Gephalopods. 

Gill-opening very wide, extending upward beyond the eyes. Arras 
long, slender; web rudimentary. Suckers prominent, in two alter- 
nating rows. Siphon large, intimately united to the whole length of 
the lower side of the head ; its free extremity is situated far forward, 
between the ventral arms. 

The sexes are widely dilFerent. The hectocotylized arm of the 
male is developed in a pedunculated sac. 

There is a large aquiferous pore just behind the base of each ven- 
ti-al arm, at the sides of the siphon ; these connect with large, cephalic, 
aquiferous cavities. The connective cartilages on each side of the 
base of the siphon consist of a prominent button, with an expanded 
and recurved anterior edge, which fits into a. corresponding deep pit 
in the mantle-cartilage ; and a deep, triangular pit, in front of the 
button, which receives the pointed, angular, cartilaginous tubercle 
of the mantle-cartilage. The posterior border of the base of the 
siphon forms a broad collar, within the mantle border. The lateral 
openings to the gill-cavity, on the sides of the neck, extend up as far 
as the upper side of the eyes ; opposite and below the eyes, they are 
large, but internally are interrupted by two muscular bands on each 
side, one running back from the head to the mantle and one going 
back from the base of the siphon, opposite the connective cartilage. 

The median septum of the gill-cavity is strong, but short, com- 
mencing a little behind the base of the siphon and extending only a 
short distance back, but expanding in length as it joins the ventral 
surface of the mantle ; behind it the two halves of the gill-cavity are 
connected by a wide opening. The peritoneal membrane is strong, 
and specked with dark chromatophores. 

Parasira catenulata steenstrup. 

Octopus iuberculatus Risso (?), Hist. nat. de I'Eur. merid., iv, p. ^^, 1826 (t. d'Orb.) 
Octopus catenulatus Ferussac, Poulpes, pi. 6, bis, ter., 1828 (t, D'Oibig.) 
Philonexis iuberculatus Fer. and D'Orb., Ceph. Acet., p. 87, pi. 6, bis, ter. 
Parasira catenulata Steenstrup. 

Verrill, Amer. Journ. Sci., xix, p. 293, Apr., 1880. 

Plate XXXIII, figures 2, 2a. 
Female: Body relatively large, swollen, rather higher than broad, 
dilated below, larger in front, obtusely rounded posteriorly ; upper 
surface smooth or finely wrinkled ; lower surface covered with promi- 
nent rounded verruca or small hard tubercles, which are connected 
too-ether by raised ridges, five (sometimes six) of which usually run 
to each tubercle, thus circumscribing angular depressed areas, each 



A. E. Verrill — JSTorth American Cephalopods. 363 

of which usually has a dark-colored spot in the center ; on the sides, 
these tubercles are less prominent and less regular, gradually fading 
out above. The head is decidedly smaller than the body, and smooth 
both above and below. The eyes are prominent, but the external 
opening is small, round, Avith simple border. The gill-opening is 
large, and extends u])ward on the sides of the neck to the level 
of the upper sides of the eye-balls. The siphon-tube is completely 
united by its basal portion to the lower side of tlie head ; its free por- 
tion is large and elongated, standing out well forward, between the 
bases of the ventral arms. . There is a conspicuous aquiferous pore at 
each side of the base of the siphon, just back of the ventral arms. 
The arms are stout, not very long ; the inner surface is broad, with 
two rows of rather widely separated suckers, which run along the 
margins of the arms; the suckers are rather large, and considerably 
raised on stout bases ; the first suckers form a regular circle around 
the mouth ; two or three basal Slickers are nearly in a single row. 
The suckers are cup-shaped, with a deep central pit, around which 
there are strong radial ridges; toward the base of the arms the soft 
swollen rims of the suckers are wi'inkled and lobulated ; farther out 
they are smooth and even. The beak is black, with sharp tij^s. 
It is surrounded by a thick, wrinkled buccal membrane. 

The arms are slightly united at their bases by a narrow web, which 
also runs along each of the outer angles of the six upper arms, form- 
ing more or less wide marginal membranes, according to the state 
of extension, and by their contractions causing the arms to curl in 
various directions ; one of these membranes frequently disappears, 
if the other be so stretched as to become wide, Avhen the arm is 
strongly recurved ; on the ventral arms the upper membrane becomes 
strongly developed, while the lower one is abortive. There is also a 
slight marginal membrane along the inner margins, running between 
the suckers and connecting them together. The dorsal and ventral 
arms are considerably larger and longer than the two lateral pairs, 
the dorsal ones are the stoutest. The two lateral pairs are about 
equal in size and length. On the dorsal arms there are about 96 
suckers ; on the lateral ones about 80, that can be counted with the 
naked eye. The tips are very slender and covered with very minute 
suckers. 

Color of the body and head, above, and of the upper arras, deep 
brownish purple ; lower surfaces of body and head, Avith the siphon 
and ventral arms, pale yellowish. 

The total length of our specimen is 203"""; of mantle, 51; circum- 

Tkans. Conn. Acad., Yol. V. 43 July, 1881. 



364 



A. E. Verrill— North American Gephalopods. 



ference of l)ody, 152; length of dorsal arms, from eye, IS*/; second 
pair, 94; of third pair, 84; of fourth pair, 134-5. 

A specimen of this interesting species was taken in Vineyard 
Sound, Mass., by Mr. V. N. Edwards, in 1876. It was not known 
previously from the American coast, and has been regarded as pecu- 
liar to the Mediterranean and West Indies. 

Measurements of Parasira catenulata. 



From base of arms to tip of tail 

From base of arms to mantle 

From edge of mantle to tip of tail 

From edge of mantle to tip of tail (below) . . 

Tail to eye. 

Circumference of body 

Breadth of body .. 

Circumference of head 

Breadth of head 

Diameter of eyes 

Diameter of largest suckers .- 

Length of dorsal arms, first pair, from eye.. 
" " " second " " 

" " " fourth " ventral-. 
Breadth of first pair of arms at base 

" " second " " " 

" " third " " '' 

" fourth " " " 

Length of siphon 

Breadth of base of free part .. 

Breadth at tip 







Left Side. 


mm. 


inches. 


mm. 


inches. 


VO 


2-75 






20 


•80 


81 


3^2 


51 


2-00 






81 


3-2 






66 


2-60 






152 


600 






51 


2-00 






109 


4-30 






38 


]-50 






2-5 


•10 






3-5 


•14 






134 


5-30 


109 


4-30 


93 


3-70 


96 


3-80 


92-5 


3^68 


89 


3^50 


149 


5^88 


1 34 


5-30 


7-5 


•30 


8^75 


•35 


"7 


-28 


7 


•28 


6-25 


•25 


6-25 


•25 


7-5 


•30 


7-5 


•30 


58 


2^30 






11-25 


•45 






7-5 


•30 







The remarkable tubercles of the ventral surface mostly have five 
ridges converging to each, rarely six. In all other respects it agrees 
with the figures of Ferussac and D'Orbigny. According to Targioni- 
Tozzetti, P. catenulata is distinct from P. tubereulata. If so, our 
species should bear the former name. 

Family ARG-ONAUTID^ Cantr. 

Cantraine, Mall. Medit., p. 13, 1841; H. & A. Adams, Genera, i, p. 23. 
Ocytlioidce Gray, Catal. Moll. Brit. Mus., i, p. 28. 



Argonauta argo Liune. 

Shells of this species, some of them entire, were taken by the 
"Fish Hawk" at several of the stations 70 to 115 miles south 
of Martha's Vineyard and Newport, R. I., in 64 to 365 fathoms. At 
least nine sjiecimens were dredged. At Station 894, in 365 
fathoms, two entire and nearly fresh shells were taken, and another 



A. JE. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. :JG5 

nearly complete. They belong to the common Mediterranean variety. 
Fragments were also taken at Stations 805-7, 871, 87^, S70, 892, 895. 
The capture of a living specimen, probably of this species, on the 
coast of Xew Jersey, has been recorded by Rev. Samuel Lockwood, 
Amer. Naturalist, xi, p. 243, 1877. 

Family ALLOPOSID.^ VerriiL nov. 

Body thick, obtusely rounded; arms extensively webbed; mantle- 
edge united directly to the bead, not only by a large dorsal commis- 
sure, but also by a median-ventral and two lateral longitudinal commis- 
sures, Avhich run from its inner surface to the basal parts of the 
siphon. 

The male hectocotylized right arm of the third pair is developed in 
a cavity in front of the right eye and, when mature, protrudes from 
an 02)ening on the inner surface of the web, between the second and 
fourth pairs of arms, and finally becomes detached. It is furnished 
with two rows of large suckers, and with a fringe along the sides. 
The mode of attachment of the mantle to the head is similar to that 
of Desmoteuthis^ among the ten-armed cephalopods. 

AllopOSUS Yerrill. 

Amer. Journ. Sci., xx, p. 393, Nov., 1880; Proc. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 362, Dec, 1880; 
Bulletin Mus. Comp. ZooL, viii, p. 112, March, 1881. 

Allied, in some respects, to Philonexis and Tremoctopxis. Body 
thick and soft, smooth ; arms (in the male only seven) united by a 
web, extending nearly to the ends ; the length of the arms decreases 
from the dorsal to the ventral ones; suckers sessile, simple, in two 
rows ; mantle united firmly to the head by a ventral and two lateral 
muscular commissures, the former placed in the median line, at the 
base of the siphon; free end of the siphon short, well forward. 

In the male, the hectocotylized right arm of the third pair is devel- 
oped in a sac in front of the right eye (Plate L, figs. 1, 1«) ; as found 
in the sac, it is curled up and has two rows of suckers ; the groove 
along its edge is fringed; near the end, the groove connects with a 
rounded, obliquely placed, broad, fiat or slightly concave lateral lobe, 
with transverse wrinkles or plications on the inner surface ; the termi- 
nal portion of the arm is a long fusiform process. 



366 



A. K. Verrill — North American Cejihalopods. 



AllopOSUS mollis Verrill. 

Amer. Jour. Sci., xx, p. 394, Nov., 1880; Proc. Nat. Mus., iii, p. 363, 1880; Bulle- 
tin Mus. Comp. Zool., viii, p. 113, pi. 4, fig. 4; pi. 8, figs. l-2a, March, 1881. 

Plate L, figs. 1, \a, 2, 2a. Plate LI, fig. 4. 

Body stout, oviite, very soft and flabLy. Head large, as broad as 
the body ; eyes large, their openings small. Arms rather stout, not 
very long, webbed nearly to the ends, the dorsal much longer than 
the ventral arms; suckers large, simple, in two alternating rows. 
Color deep purplish brown, with a more or less distinctly spotted 
appearance. Total length of a medium sized specimen, 160'"'" ; of body, 
to base of arms, 90"""; of mantle, beneath, 50""" ; of dorsal arms, 70""" ; 
breadth of body, 70""". Other specimens are about one-third larger. 
The sexes scarcely differ in size. 

One mature, detached, hectocotylized arm (Plate LI, fig. 4) was 
taken November 16. This has two rows of large, six or seven-lobed 
suckers, a very long fringe, composed of thin, fiat, lacerate processes, 
along each side ; the terminal process is fusiform, acute, and loosely 
covered with a thin, translucent membrane, beneath which the inner 
surface, bearing chromatophores, can be seen. Length of this arm, 
200""'; its breadth, 20'""'; length of terminal process, 30"""; its diame- 
ter, 7'"'"; diameter of largest suckers, 6'"'"; length of fringe, 15""". 

Taken by the "Fish Hawk," at Stations 880, 892, 893, 895, about 
100 to 115 miles south of Newport, R. L, in 225 to 487 fathoms. 
Also, ofi"the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, at Station 898, November 10, 
in 300 fathoms, by Lieut. Z. L. Tanner. 



Specimens examined. 



a 


Locality. 


Fath. 


A\'hou re- 
ceived. 


Received from. 


Specimens. 














(Xl 














OFF NEWPORT, R. I. 

N. lat. \Sf. long. 










880 


39" 48' 30" 10° .50' 00".. 


252 


Sept. 13, 1880 


U. S. Fish Com. 


2^:1$ 


881 


Farther southward . . 


325 


Sept. 13, 1880 


do 


1 


892 


39° 46' 00" 71° 05' 00"-. 


487 


Oct. 2, 1880 


do 


1 


893 


39° 52' 20" 70° 58' 00".. 


372 


Oct. 2, 1880 


do 


2 


895 


39° 56' 30" 70° 59' 45".. 

OFF CHESAPEAKE liAY. 


238 


Oct. 2, 1880 


do 


1 


898 


37° 24' 00" 74 17' 00".. 


300 


Nov. 16, 1880 


do 


4 



A. E. Verrlll — North American Cephalopods. 367 

Family OCTOPODID^ D'Oibigny, (restricted). 

Octopotlidce (pars) D'Orbigny, Moll. Viv. et Fos., i, 159, lti4, 1845 (t. Gray); (imrs) 

Cepli;il. Acetab.. p. 3. 
Odopidm {pars) (Jray. Catal. Moll. Brit. Mas., i, p. 4. 184ft. 

Body slioit, thick, rotinded posteriorly, destitute of lateral fins and 
internal cartilages. Mantle united to the head by a broad dorsal 
commissure. Head very large. Connection between the mantle and 
base of sijjhon simple, without cartilages. Opening to the gill-cavity 
narrow. Median septum of branchial cavity short, extending for- 
ward to the base of the siphon, but running back only a short dis- 
tance. Siphon large, simple. Arms with either one or two rows of 
suckers, and Avith a more or less developed basal web. No cephalic 
aquiferous pores. Eyes furnished with an internal translucent lid, and 
also capable of being covered with the external integument. Sexes 
similar externally, except that the right arm of the tliird pair in the 
male is hectocotylized by the formation of a spoon-shaped organ 
at the tip. 

OCTOPUS Lamarck, 1799. 

Octopus {pars) Lamarck, 8yst. des Auim. sans Vert., p. (50, isoi. 
Cuvier, Reg. Aniiii., ii, 1817. 
D'Orbigny, Cephal. Acetab., p. 3. 
Gray, Catal. Moll. Brit. xMus., i, p. 4, 1849. 

Body short, thick, more or less rounded, usually flattened, often 
tubercular or warty, but sometimes smooth, usually with one or more 
tubercles or cirri situated above the eye. Mantle directly united to 
the head, dorsally, by a broad commissure, extending below the eyes 
to the base of the siphon. Base of the siphon without any compli- 
cated connective cartilages. Arms united by a more or less extensive 
basal web. Suckers sessile, in two alternating rows. Siphon not inti- 
mately united to the whole length of the under side of the head, the 
free terminal portion situated behind or beneath the eyes. No aquif- 
erous pores, nor bi'achial pouches. 

The sexes are similar in form. In the male the right arm of the 
third pair is hectocotylized, its terminal ])ortion being changed into 
a spoon-shaped organ, smooth on the outer convex side and furnished 
with a series of transverse ridges on the inner concave side, and with 
a basal ansfular lobe from which a groove or furrow extends alontr 
the lower margin of the arm to the basal web. In some species of 
Octopus this modified tip is very small, but in others very large. 

The female has oviducts on both sides. Eggs comparatively few 



368 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

and large, elongated pyrifoim, attached singly or in clnsters by the 
small end. 

In addition to the several small species descrilje<l here, a much lar- 
ger rough-backed species has been taken several times at Fort Macon 
and near Beaufort, N. C This is probably Octopus rugosris Bosc, a 
West Indian species. 

Octopus Bairdii Veniii. 

Odo-pus Bairdii Verrill, Amer. Jour. 8ci., v, p. 5, Jan., 1873; xix, p. 294, 1880; 

American Naturalist, vii, p. HOi, figs. TO, 77, 187:J ; Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. for 

1873, p. 348, pi. 1, figs. 1, 2, 1874. 
G. 0. Sars, Mollusca Regionis Arcticas Norvegiaj, p. 339, pi. 33, tigs. 1-10 ( ? ), pi. 

xvii, figs. 8a to %d (dentition and jaws), 1878. 
Tyron, Man. Conch., i, p. 116, pi. 32, figs. 37, 38 (description and figures from the 

papers by A. E. V.). 
Verrill, Bulletin Mus. Oomp. Zool., viii, p. 107, pi. 2, figs. 4, 4a; pi. 4, tigs. 1, la, 

1881. 

Plate XXXIII, figs. 1, la. Plate XXXIV, figs. 5, 6. Plate XXXVI, fig. 10. 
Plate XXXVIII, fig. 8; Plate XLIX, figs. 4, 4a; Plate LI, figs. 1, la. 

The body is short, thick, somewhat depressed, broadly rounded 
posteriorly, separated from tlie head only by a slight constriction at 
the sides. Head almost as broad as the body, swollen above and 
around the eyes, concave in the middle above ; around the eyes, and 
especially in front and above, there are numerous small, conical, often 
irregular and rough tubercles; a little removed from the upper side 
of each eye, is a much larger, rough, irregularly conical, erectile cirrus, 
which has some small, more or less prominent, conical papilla? on 
its surface ; the whole upper surface of the body, head, and arms is 
also covered with minute scattered papillae, which are usually but 
little prominent, but in some of the larger males they become much 
laro-er and more numerous, and have the form of small prominent 
warts. 

The jaws (Plate XLIX, fig. 4a) have rather blunt, slightly incurved 
tips, with the angle at the bases of the cutting edges round and with- 
out any distinct notch. The odontophore, (Plate XLIX, fig. 4) has a 
median row of large, acute teeth, with broad bases without lateral 
denticles; the inner lateral teeth are much smaller, with curved acute- 
triangular points ; outer lateral teeth longer and more acute ; mar- 
ginal plates large and distinct. 

Siphon large, tapering, capable of being bent in all directions, so 
as to be used for swimming either forward, backward, or sideways, 
according to its direction. 



A. E. Verr'dl — North American Cephalopods. 369 

Arms siibequal, relatively short, stoiit, tapering to slender points, 
connected for aboiit one-tliird of their length by a web, which ex- 
tends as a narrow membrane along their margins to near the ends. 
Suckers small, not crowded, alternating pretty regularly in two rows ; 
in the original type-specimen, which was not full grown, the arms of 
the first pair each had about sixty-five suckers; those of the fourth 
pair about sixty. In a large example ( $ ) the dorsal arms have 
about 94; third pair about 100; fourth pair about 90. 

In the male, the i-ight arm of the third pair has its terminal portion, 
for about a thii-d of its entire length, modified for reproductive pur- 
poses into a large spoon-shaped organ (Plate XXXIIl, figs. 1, 1«, A), 
broadly elliptical in outline; with the sides incurved and the end 
somewhat tri-lobed ; its interior deej^ly concave with ten to twelve, and 
occasionally, in the largest examples, thirteen, elevated transverse 
folds; at the base, there is a fold bent into an acute angle, the 
apex directed forward, leaving a deep V-shaped sinus behind it, which 
is a continuation of a shallow groove formed by a thickening of the web 
along the lower side of the arm, and terminating midway between it 
and the fourth arm. At the end, this arm terminates in a small conical 
tip, between the two broadly rounded lobes of the spoon-shaped 
organ ; at the base of this organ there is a slight constriction ; the 
basal portion of the arm bears 30 to 37 suckers, like those on the other 
arms. The modified portion of the arm is considerably longer than 
the distance between the constriction at its base and the interbrachial 
web, and about equal to one-half the total length of the part which 
boars suckers. The corresponding arm on the left side is of the ordi- 
nary form and has, in a medium sized example, about fifty-one suckers. 
The female differs but little from the male, externally, except in lack- 
ing the modification of the third right arm. 

Length of the original male specimen, in alcohol, exclusive of the 
arms, 44"""; breadth of the body, 31™'"; between eyes, 18"""; length of 
the arms, of the first pair, from mouth, 18""" ; from mouth to edge of the 
web, 57"'™ ; length of modified portion of third right arm, 18""" ; breadth 
of this organ when expanded, 11*5""". Subsequently somewhat lar- 
ger specimens, both male and female, have been taken. 

One of the largest males (Station 878) measures from tip of dorsal 
arms to end of body, 1 63°"" ; f roiu edge of dorsal web to end of 
body, 75""" ; from edge of mantle, beneath, to end of body, 38 ; 
breadth of body, 48 ; of head, 41 ; length of dorsal arms to beak, 
110; of second pair, 112; of third pair, 115; of fourth pair, 110; of 
hectocotylized arm, 85 ; length of terminal spoon, 33 ; its breadth, 
17. This specimen has thirteen transverse lamelhe in the spoon. 



3*70 A. E. Verrill — North American Cepludopods. 

One of the largest females (Station 895,) in breeding season and 
filled with eggs, measures, from Xv^ of dorsal arms to end of body, 
IVO"'"'; edge of dorsal web to end of body, 90; mantle, beneath, 
46 ; breadth of body, 55 ; of head, 41 ; length of dorsal arms from 
beak, 125; of second ])air, J 20; of third pair, 115; of fourth pair, 
115""". 

When living, the ground-color was usually pale, translucent, blu- 
ish white, above thickly specked witli light orange-brown and dark 
purplish brown. Its colors were changeable, but apparently less 
actively so than in the squids. 

The spermatophores (PI. XXVI, fig. 10, a, b) are remarkably 
large in proportion to the size of the animal, being from 50 to 75""" in 
length and 4 to 5""" in diameter. The form is club-shaped, with the 
narrow portion little longer than the thickened part. They are almost 
perfectly transparent, and the milk-Avhite, coiled string of sperma- 
tozoa can be plainly seen in the interior. There is a slender, thread- 
like filament at each end, that of tlie small end much the longest. 
When they begin to discharge their contents (as in fig. 10, a), the 
form changes rapidly. In several instances I have observed these 
spermatophores escaping from the siphon of recently captured speci- 
mens, taken at various dates, from July 23 to Sept. 21, at stations 
138, 161, 163, 223, etc. 

This species was first discovered by the writer, while dredging in 
1872, on the U. S. steamer "Mosswood," in the Bay of Fuudy, ofi" 
Eastport, Me., in 75 to 80 fathoms. Although so recently discovered, 
it proves to have a very extensive range, both geographically and in 
depth. It is one of the most common and characteristic inhabitants 
of the bottom, in 100 to 500 fathoms, along our entire coast, from 
South Carolina to Newfoundland. It was taken in the trawl, by the 
U. S. Fish Commission, in 1872, 1873, 1874, 1877, 1878, 1879, and 
1880, in depths ranging from 50 to 500 fathoms, at numerous locali- 
ties, from oft' Halifax, N. S., and in the Bay of Fundy, to the region 90 
to 100 miles south of Newport, R. I., where it is common and of large 
size. It was obtained by Mr. A. Agassiz, on the " Blake," in 1880, at 
various stations, from N. lat. 41° 34' 30", to 32° 43' 25", in 178 to 
524 fathoms. 

In November, 1880, it was taken by Lieut. Z. L. Taimer, on the 
"Fish Hawk," off the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, in 157 to 300 
fathoms. 

The Gloucester fishei-meu have brought in several s])ecimens from 
the banks oft* Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. 



A. E. Verr'dl — N'orth American Cephalopods. 



371 



Professor G. O. Sars has taken it oft* the Norwegian coast, in 60 to 
300 fathoms. 

It occurs both on soft muddy bottoms and on hard bottoms. Both 
sexes often occiir together, but the males are usually the most 
numerous. 

Recently hatched young have been taken in August and Septem- 
ber, in the Bay of Fundy, oft" Halifax, N. S., and oiF Cape Ann, 
Mass. (at stations 45, 85, 234, 238, etc.). 

One of the specimens obtained by Mr. Agassiz is remarkable for the 
length and slenderness of the cirrus above the eyes (Plate LI, fig. 
1, la). This is an immature male, and does not appear to difier in 
any other way from ordinary specimens, of similar size. The append- 
age of the hectocotylized arm is small and not fully developed (as is 
always the case in yoi;ng males), and has an ovate-triangular form, 
a slightly concave surface, and only a few transverse lamella?. 



Octopus Bairdii. — Specimens examined. 











When 


Specimens. 


Stat. 


Locality. 


Fath. 


Bottom. 


coird. 


No. Sex. 




U. S. Fish Com. 






Bay of Fundy 


75 





1872 


2 ,5 : 1 j. $ 




Bay of Fundy . . 


80 





1872 


1 1.^ 




Bay of Fundy 


60 





1872 


Ic5 




Off G. Menan I 


97-110 
64 


gravel 


1872 
1873 


2i. 5 
1 med. 




Casco Bay 


30,31, 








1877 


2 1. 5 : 2 juv. 


32, 33 


Gulf of Maine,off Gape Anu 


90 


mud 


Aug. 14 


5^ 


45 


Off Cape Sable, 30 m. 


91 


fine sand 


Aug. 21 


1 1. ^ : 4 j. i : 4 j. S 


85,86 


Off Halifax, 23 m 

Gulf Maine and Mass. Bay. 
Off Gloucester, Mass. 


101 


fine sand 


Sept. 6 

1878 


2 3 : 2 1. 5 : 4 $ 


130 


S. of Cape Ann, 13 m. 


49 


mud 


July 23 


1^ 


138 


Off Cape Ann, 9 m 


59 


muddy 


July 29 


1 j. ,5 : 2 1. ,3 : 2 ? 


156 


Off Cape Anil, 5^ m 


42 


mud 


Aug. 15 


Ij- 


161 


Off Cape Ann, 6 m 


54 


sand 


Aug. 16 


1 1. 5 : 1 j. i : 1 J. S 


163 


Off Cape Ann, 6^ m 


73 


fine sand 


Aug. 16 


5 j. 5 : 3 1. 5 : 1 j. 2 


164 


Off Cape Ann, 7 in. 


75 


flue sand 


Aug. 16 


2 5 : 3 j. ,? : 2 1. 2 : 3 


182 


South of Gloucester 


45 





Aug. 29 


4 ]■- 2 [j. 2 


199 


Off Cape Ann. 13| m 


58 


muddy 


Sept. 2 


1 j. ,! : 2 1. ,5 : 1 1. 2 : 2 


184 


Off Gloucester, Mass., 4| m. 


45 


mud 


Aug. 29 


3 j. 2 : 1 j. ,5 [j. 2 


207 


Off Gloucester, Mass., 4f m. 


42 


soft mud 


Sept. 16 


Ij-^ 


211 


Off Cape Ann, 6 m. 


60 


mud 


Sept. 17 


4 j. ? : 2 j. $ : 1 ? 


213 


Off Cape Ann, oA^ m. 


68 


mud 


Sept. 17 


W.f. 


214 


Off Cape Ann, 6 m. 


57 


fine sand 


Sept. 17 


1 m. 2 


223 


Off Cape Ann, 7 m 


47 


soft mud 


Sept. 21 


2 ,J : 1 2 : 1 1. 2 


233 


South of Gloucester, 4| m. 


45 


soft mud 


Sept. 24 


1 j. 3 


234 


South of Gloucester 


43 


soft mud 


Sept. 24 


2 j. J : 1 j. 2 


238 


Off Gloucester, 4| m. 


43 


soft mud 


Sept. 26 


22 


TRjI 


lns. Conn. Acad., Vol. V 




44 




August, 1881. 



372 



A. E. Verrill — Nbrt7i American Cephalopods. 



Octopus Bairdii — Continued. 











When 


Spe< imenB. 


Stat. 


Locality. 


Fath. 


Bottom. 


coJl'd. 


No. Sex. 










1879 




264 


Off Cape Cod, 15 m. 


80 


mud 


July 29 


2 j.^: 1 1. 2: 1 j. S 


342 


Off Cape Cod, 14 ni 


94 


mud 


Sept. 10 


2 m. 6 : 1 j. ? 


364 


Off Cape Cod, 15 m. 


70 


hard sand 


Sept. 18 


3 1. ^ : 2 j. .^ : 2 1. 5 


372 


Off Chatham, Mass., 21 m. 

Off Newport, R. I. 
N. Lat. W. Long. 


70 


sand 


Sept. 19 
1880 


11.? 


869 


40" 02' 18" 


70° 23' 06" 


192 


mud, fine sand 


Sept. 4 


1 1. ? : 3 j. $ 


870 


40 02 36 


70 22 58 


155 


fine sand 


Sept. 4 


1 1. 3 : 3 j. 


874 


40 


70 57 


85 


mud 


Sept. 13 


1 


878 


39 55 


70 54 15 


142i 


mud 


Sept. 13 


1 1.^ 


879 


39 49 30 


70 54 


225 


fine sand 


Sept. 13 


15:12 


880 


39 48 30 


70 54 


252i 


mud 


Sept. 13 


13:12 


892 


39 46 


71 05 


487 


mud 


Oct. 2 


1 1.2 


893 


39 52 20 


70 58 


372 


mud 


Oct. 2 


2^:22 


894 


39 53 


70 58 30 


365 


sand 


Oct. 2 


3 1. 3 : 3 2 


895 


39 56 30 


70 59 45 


238 


mud 


Oct. 2 


23:22 




Off Chesapeake Bay. 










897 


37 25 ; 74 18 


157-i- 


sand 


Nov. 16 


\$ 


898 


37 24 ; 74 17 

Blake Exp.— U. S. Coast 
Survey. 

N. Lat. W. Long. 


300" 


mud 


Nov. 10 


2 3:42 


303 


41° 34' 30" 


65° 54' 30" 


306 





1880 


1 3 (fig'd) 


332 


35 45 30 


74 48 


263 





1880 


4 3 : 1 j. 2 


327 


34 30 


76 10 30 


178 





1880 


13:12 


310 


39 59 16 


70 18 30 


260 





1880 


13 


336 


38 21 50 


73 32 


197 





1880 


13j. 


321 


32 43 25 


77 20 30 


233 


.... 


1880 


1 3 : 1 2 j. 


306 


41 32 50 


65 55 


524 





1880 


I3j. 


Lot. 


Gloucester Fisheries. 




Schooner. 






204 


Lat. 42° 49'; long. 62° 57' 


200-300 


Marion 


Jan. '79 


1 1.2 


351 


N.lat.44°17';W.long.58°10' 


120 


Grace L. Fears 


June'79 


22 


372 


Off Miquelon I. 


7 


A. M. Williams 


July '79 


1 


421 


Banquereau, off N. S 


300 


Commonw'lth 


Aug.'79 


1 2 


501 


N. lat. 43° 14'; long. 61" 7' 


250 


A.M.Williams 


Oct. '79 


1 2 


605 


Brown's Bank, N. S 


... 


Barracouta 


Jan. '80 


1 mutilated 


771 


Off St. Peter's Bank 


80 


Kpes Tarr 


July '80 


13:12 


792 






n. P.Whitman 


Aug.'SO 


11.3 


917 


Banquereau, JST. S 


... 


A.M.Williams 


1880 


11.3 


721 


Grand Bank 






GuyC'ningham 


July '80 


L 1.2 



In the last column, j. ^ young ; I. = large ; m. or ined. = medium size. 



Specimens of this species were kept, alive for several clays, in order 
to observe its liabits. Several characteristic drawings, three of which 
are now reproduced (Plate XXXIV, figs. 5, 6 ; Plate XXXVIII, fig. 
8), were made from life by Mr. J. H. Emerton, showing its different 
attitudes. 



A. E. Verrill — N'ortJi American Cephalopods. 373 

When at rest it remained at the bottom of the vessel, adhering 
firmly by some of the basal suckers of its arms, while the outer portions 
of the arms were curled back in various jjositions; the body was held 
in a nearly horizontal position, and the eyes were usually half-closed 
and had a sleepy look; the siphon was usually turned to one side, and 
was long enough to be seen in a view from above. 

When disturbed, or in any way excited, the eyes opened more 
widely, especially at night ; the body became more contracted and 
rounded, and was held more erect ; the small tubercles over its sur- 
face and the larger ones above the eyes were erected, giving it a very 
decided appearance of excitement and watchfulness. 

It was rarely, if ever, observed actually to creep about by means of 
its arms and suckers, but it would swim readily and actively, circling 
around the pans or jars, in which it was kept, many times before rest- 
ing again. 

In swimming backward the partial web connecting the arms 
together was used as an organ of locomotion, as well as the siphon ; 
the arms and web were alternately spread and closed, the closing 
being done energetically and coincidently with the ejection of the 
water from the siphon, and the arms after each contraction were 
all held pointing straight forward in a compact bundle, so as to afford 
the least resistance to the motion (fig. 8). As the motion resulting 
from each impulse began to diminish sensibly, the arms were again 
spread, and the same actions repeated. This use of the arms and 
web recalled that of the disk of the jelly-fishes, biit it was much more 
energetic. 

The siphon was bent in different directions to alter the direction of 
the motions, and by bending it to the right or left side, backward 
motions in oblique or circular directions were given, but it was often 
bent directly downward and curved backward, so that the jet of water 
from it served to propel the animal directly forward. This, so far as 
observed, was its only mode of moving forward. The same mode of 
swimming forward has been observed in cuttle-fishes {Se2)ia) and 
in squids [Loligo). 

This species was much more active and animated in the night than 
during the day, and is probably largely nocturnal in its habits, Avhen 
at liberty. None of the specimens could be induced to take food, and 
none survived more than four or five days, although the water was 
frequently renewed to keep it cool and pure. They had been rather 
roughly handled by the dredges and trawls, without doubt. But the 
unavoidable exposure to the higher temperature of the water, near and 



374 



A. E. Verrlll — North American Cephalopods. 










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A. K Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 375 

at the surface, especially in summer, is sufficient to kill many of the 
deep-water animals, while others that live for a short time never 
recover entirely. 

This species resembles 0. lentus, but has a much larger and rough 
or lacerate cirrus above the eye. The modified arm of the male is also 
diiferent. It is somewhat related to 0. Gnenlandictis Dewh., but 
the male of the latter has the third right arm much longer, with the 
modified spoon-shaped portion relatively very much smaller and quite 
different in form, and with more numerous folds, and the basal part 
bears 41 to 48 suckers; the other arms also have more numerous 
suckers ; the web is less extensive and the body is more elongated and 
appears to be smooth and destitute of the large cirrus above the eyes, 
if correctly figured. 

O. obesus has the spoon-shaped part of the third right arm rela- 
tively larger, and several of the basal suckers of the other arms are 
in a single row. It also difters in other respects. 

Octopus lentus VerriU. 

Yerrill Amer. Jour. Sci., xix, p. 138, Feb., 1880: p. 294, April, 1880; BuUetin 
Mus. Comp. Zool., viii, p. 108, pi. 4, fig. 2, $ . 

Plate XXXV, figures 1 , 2, s . Plate LI, figure 2, 3 . 
Female (type specimen) : Body broad, stout, depressed, slightly 
emarginate at the posterior end, rather soft to the touch, and in some 
specimens gelatinous in appearance ; a thin, soft, free, marginal mem- 
brane runs along the sides and around the posterior end of the body, 
becoming widest (about 12""") posteriorly; in some of the more 
strongly contracted specimens this membrane is but little apparent. 
Head large, broad, depressed, with the eyes large and far apart ; 
above each eye there is a small, simple, conical, acute, contractile 
cirrus. A well-developed thin web connects the arms, considerably 
above their bases, and then runs up to the tips as broad margins to 
each arm. 

The arms are rather large, stout at base, with a broad inner face, 
and taper gradually to veiy slender tips; the first and third pairs are 
nearly equal in length ; those of the second are also about equal in 
length to the fourth pair, but are somewhat shorter than the first and 
third. The arras on the right side, in the type-specimen, were all 
somewhat longer than the corresponding ones on the left. The arms, 
measuring from the beak, are more than twice as long as the body. 
The suckers are arranged in two distinct rows, to the base. 

Color of head and body above, and of body beneath, deep reddish 



376 A. E. Verrill — N^orth American Cephalopods. 

brown, closely specked with darker brown, and with many small 
roundisli spots of whitish on the body and arms. 

Length of the type-specimen (?) from the beak to the end of the 
body, not including the marginal web, 60""" ; breadth of web, 22 ; 
total length, 1 94 ; breadth of body, 40 ; breadth of head, across eyes, 
32; of eye-openings, TO; of eye-balls, 17; length of mantle, beneath, 
38; length of arms of first pair, 112 and 105; of second pair, 103 and 
96 ; of third pair, 1 12 and 106 ; of fourth pair 94 and 97 ; breadth of 
those of the three upper pairs, 8 ; of the ventral pair, 7""". 

Male : Body depressed, rounded posteriorly, with only a trace of the 
lateral and posterior fold ; surface soft and nearly smooth, but show- 
ing a small number of minute white papilla? sparsely scattered over the 
dorsal surface. Cirrus above the eye small and simple, usually con- 
tracted into a small, wart-like papilla. Head broad and flattened; 
eyes large. Arms rather long and slender, with slender tapering tips, 
their bases united by a rather wide web. Suckers small, very prom- 
inent, forming two regular rows, quite to the base. 

The first two pairs of arms are nearly equal and somewhat longer 
than the two lower pairs, which diflier but little between themselves. 
The hectocotylized arm (third of right side) bears thirty-five suckers, 
in two rows, and a remarkably large, terminal spoon-shaped organ, 
which occupies more than a third of the total length of the arm ; its 
sides are bent up and the edges inrolled, so as to form a deep cavity ; 
its outer end is broadly rounded laterally, and tei-minates in a cen- 
tral, narrow, acute lobe; internally there are nine large, high, oblique 
lamellae, with deep fosste between them; the proximal end has a 
large, acute, triangular lobe, with involute margins ; from this lobe a 
broad groove runs along the lower edge of the arm to the margin of 
the web ; where it terminates there is a distinct thickening of the 
bounding membrane. 

The two males of this species, described above, were dredged by 
Mr. A. Agassiz, on the "Blake," in 1880, in 464 and 603 fathoms. 
They agree well in the peculiar characters and large size of the 
appendage of the hectocotylized arm. The females, only, were previ- 
ously known. Although these males have a mere trace of the loose 
membranous fold of skin, along the sides and around the posterior 
end, so conspicuous in the original female specimen of this species, 
they agree so well in other characters that I unite them without much 
hesitation. It is probable that the presence or absence of the mem- 
branous fold, in this and other species, may be due merely to ditter- 
ences in the state of contraction when they die, or even to differences 
in the strength of the alcohol. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

Measurements in millimeters. 



S11 



Total length 

Posterior end to center of eye . . 

Eye to tip of dorsal arms 

Breadth of l)ody 

Breadth of head . 

Length of dorsal arms, from mouth . 

■' second pair " 

•' third " " 

" hectocotylized arm, from mouth. 

" fourth pair 

' ' spoon-shaped appendage 

Breadth of the same -.. 



$ 


$ 


Right Side. 


Left Side. 


95 




34 


.. 


64 




28 




22 




65 


61 


61 


.. 




52 


58 


.. 




53 


23 
16 


-- 



Rigbt Side. 



194 



40 

32 

112 

103 

112 

94 



Left Side. 



105 

96 

106 

97 



The first specimen of this species was taken off Nova Scotia, near 
Le Have Bank, in 120 fathoms, by Captain Samuel Peeples and crew 
of the schooner " M. H, Perkins," and presented to the U. S. Fish 
Commission. A few others have since been brouglit in by the 
Gloucester fishermen, from the Bank Fisheries. Mr. A. Ao-assiz 
dredged it on the " Blake," in 1880, as far south as N. lat. 33° 42' 
15". It ranges in depth from 120 to 602 fathoms. 







Specimens examined. 








No. 


Stat. 


Locality. 


Fath. 


"Wlien 
coll'd. 


Specimens. 
No. and Sex. 


7 
10 


326 
329 
553 
718 
737 
807 
808 


K Lat. 33° 42' 15"; W. Long. 76° 0' 50" (Blake) 

N. Lat. 34' 39' 40"; W. Lor:g. 75° 14' 40" (Blake) 

Le Have Bank, N. S. (soh. M. H. Perkins) 

S. of Newfoundland (sch. Proctor Brothers) 

St. Peter's Bank (sch. Augusta H. Johnson) 

Banquereau (sch. Epes Tarr) 

N. Lat. 44° 32'; Gr. Bank (sch. Guy Cunningham) 


464 
603 
120 
150 
200 


1879 

1879 

1879 

Jn'80 

1880 

Au. '80 

Au.'SO 


1^:12 
I $ (fig'd.) 
I 2 (fig'd.) 
1 sm. 2 

11. 2 

1 2 

1 2 



In the soft consistency of the flesh and skin, this species resembles 
O. obesus. It differs in the shorter and posteriorly emarginate body, 
and especially in the arrangement of the suckers, which, in that 
species, are in a single series toward the bases of the arms. 

Octopus plSCatOrum Verrill. 

Verrill, Amer. Jour. Sci., vol. xvili, p. 470, Dec, 1879 ; xix, p. 294, Apr., 1880. 
Plate XXXVI, pigctres 1, 2, 2 . 

The body of the female is smooth, depressed, about as broad as 
long ; rounded posteriorly, not showing any lateral ridges, nor dorsal 
papillffi ; a small simple papilla above the eyes. Arms long, rather 
slender, tapering to long, slender, acute tips, the upper ones a little 
(2*5"'"') shorter than those of the second pair, which are the lonoest; 



378 A. M Verrill — N'orth American Cephalopods. 

those of the third pair are about 12"'"' shorter tlian those of the 
second ; the ventral pair about 6'""' shorter than those of the third. 
In our type-specimen, all the arms on the right side are somewhat 
shorter than those on the left, and the web between the first and 
second arms is narrower, due, perha])S, to recovery from an injury. 
The web between the arms, except ventrally, is of about equal width, 
and scarcely more than one-fourth the length' of the arms, measuring 
from the beak. Between the ventral arms the web is about half as 
wide as between the lateral. 

The suckers are moderately large, decidedly prominent, alternating 
in two regular rows, except close to the mouth, where a few stand 
nearly iu a single line ; about fourteen to sixteen are situated on the 
part of the arms included within the interbrachial web. The whole 
number of suckers on one arm is upwards of seventy. 

Color of one alcoholic specimen is deep purplish brown, due to very 
numerous crowded minute specks ; eye-lids, whitish. The front 
border of the mantle, beneath, and the base of the siphon and adja- 
cent parts are white; end of siphon, brown. Lower side of head and 
arms lighter than the dorsal side. 

Total length, from posterior end of body to tip of arms, of 1st pair, 
158"'"'; 2d pair, 160"'"'; 3d pair, 146"""; 4th pair, 133'""'; to web be- 
tween dorsal arms, 82""" ; between ventral arms, 63'""' ; to edge of 
mantle, beneath, 3(»"""; to center of eye, 39""", Breadth of body, 
31"'™; of head across eyes, 30"'"'; breadth of arms, at base, 5-5"""; 
diameter of largest suckers, 2-5"'"'; length of arms beyond web, 1st 
pair, 76"'"'; 2d pair, 82"""; 3d pair, 71'""'; 4th pair, 69"'"'. 

Two specimens of this species, both females, have been obtained. 
The first was from Le Have Bank, oif Nova Scotia, in 120 fathoms, 
taken by Captain John Mclnnis and crew, of the schooner " M. H. 
Perkins," October, 1879; the second was taken by Captain David 
Campbell and crew, of the schooner "Admiral," (lot 590), near the 
Grand Bank, N. lat. 44° 07' ; W. long. 52° 40', in 200 fathoms, De- 
cember, 1879. 

This species resembles O. GrOnlandicus, of which only the males 
appear to have been described, and it may eventually prove to be 
the female of that species. 

This species is easily distinguished from 0. Bairdli^ by its more 
elongated body, its much longer and more slender and tapered arras, 
with shorter webs ; by the absence of the large, rough, pointed pa- 
pilla, or cirrus, above the eye, and by its general smoothness. The 
white color of the underside of the neck, siphon and mantle-box'der 
also appears to be cliaracteristic. 



A. E. Veirill — JVorth American Oephalopods. SVO 

Octopus ObeSUS VeniU. 

Verrill, American Jour. Sci., vol. xix, p. 137, Feb., 1880; vol. xix, p. 294, Apr., 
1880. 

Plate XXXVI, figures 3, 3a, $ . 

Male : Remarkable for the great size of the spoon-shaped organ of 
the right arm of the third paii\ Body relatively large, stout, oblong- 
oval, somewhat flattened above, obtusely I'ounded at the posterior 
end ; soft and somewhat gelatinous in texture ; skin, so far as pre- 
served, smooth, soft. No cirrus exists above the eye, in our specimen, 
but the skin is not so well preserved in that region as to render it 
certain that a small one may not have existed in life. Eyes very large. 

Arms moderately long, the dorsal longest, others successively 
shorter; all somewhat laterally compi-essed at base, tapering to long, 
slender tips ; a moderately developed web connects them together at 
base. The hectocotylized arm (third of right side), bears at the end 
a very large, broad and thick, but not very deep, spoon-like organ, 
occupying more than a third of the total length of the arm ; its 
inner surface is crossed by eleven oblique, thick, rounded folds or 
ribs, ten of them converginc: backward to the median line and at 
their outer ends joining a marginal thickening. The distal end ter- 
minates in a median, pointed lobe, or tip, with a thin, rounded, lateral 
lobe each side of it ; the proximal border is formed by the last (elev- 
enth) fold, which is V-shaped, with the apex pointing distally. A 
broad, thin, marginal membrane extends along the lower side of the 
arm, from the terminal organ to the base. The suckers have been 
partly detached from this arm. 

The suckers of all the arms are moderately large, nearly globular 
in form, rather numerous ; the first six to ten, at the base, are nearly 
in one line, except on the left arm of the second pair, and appear to 
form only a single row; in this part the inner face of the arm is nar- 
row, most so on the right arm of the second pair, and least on the 
left arm of the same pair ; farther out this face becomes broader and 
the suckers are in two distinct rows. The suckers are destroyed on 
the distal portion of all the arms. 

The color of the body and arms is mostly destroyed, but so far as 
preserved, is pale pinkish, more or less thickly specked with distinct 
reddish brown spots, most conspicuous at the base of the arms and 
above the eyes, (elsewhere the color is probably not so well pre- 
served). 

Length of body, from the posterior end to the base of arms, 82""" ; 
to center of eye, 72 ; to edge of mantle, beneath, 49 ; to tip of right 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 45 August, 1881. 



380 A. K Verrill — N'orth American Cephalopods. 

dorsal arm, 213; left, 198; to tips of second pair, 200; to tip of 
rig^ht arm of third pair, 173 ; of left, 197 ; to tip of right, of fourth 
pair, 187; of left, 178; to edge of web, 110; breadth of body, in 
middle, 46 ; breadth of head, across eyes, 38 ; breadth of dorsal 
arms, at base, 8 ; diameter of largest suckers, 3 ; length of spoon- 
shaped end of right arm of third pair (hectocotylized), 35 ; breadth, 
16; length of rest of arm, to mouth, 65'"™. 

Taken from the stomach of a lialil)ut, 36 miles east from the N. E. 
Light of Sable Island, in 160 to 300 fathoms, by Charles Rucklcy, of 
the schooner " Fl. A. Duncan," and presented by him to the U. S. 
Fish Commission, 1879. A smaller, mutilated specimen was also taken 
from the stomach of a halibut, from Banquereau, off N. S., in 150 
fathoms (lot 678), and presented to the U. S. Fish Commission, by 
Captain Charles Markuson and crew, of the schooner " Notice," April, 
1880. The latter specimen was, however, in too poor condition to 
afford any additional characters, and may, perhaps, belong to O. 
lentxs. 

This species diifers from Octopus Bairdii V., O. lentiis V. and 0. 
piscatortini V., from the same region, in its longer and larger body, 
and especially in haviug the basal suckers in a single row. The 
' spoon ' of the hectocotylized arm is very much larger than in 0. 
Ord)il(indicus, and considerably larger and flatter and more deeply 
trilobed at the end than in 0. Bairdii. 

Eledone Leach. 

Octopus [pars) h&mavok; Cuvier; Blainville, etc. 

Eledone Leach, Zool. Misc., iii, 137, 1817 (t. Gray); D'Orbif?. Gephal. Acetab., p. 72 
(subgenus); Gray, Gatal. Moll. Brit. Mus., i, p. 21, 1849. 

Body, mantle, and siphon as in Octopus. Suckers in a single vow 
on all the arms. In the male the right arm of the third pair is hec- 
tocotylized by the formation of a small spoon-shaped tip and a lat- 
eral groove, nearly as in some species of Octopics. 

Eledone verrucosa Verrill. 

Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zool., viii, p. 105, pi. 5, 6. March, 1881. 

Plates LII, LIU. 
A stout species, covered above with prominent, rough, wart-like 
tubercles, and with a circle of thy sam3 around the eye^ ; fo;ir or five 
of those above the eyes are lai-ger and more prominent. Body thick, 
broad-ovate, swollen beneath, moderately convex above, obtusely 
rounded posteriorly. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephulopods. 381 

Male : Head as broad as the body, whole upper surface of body 
and head to base of arms covered with prominent and persistent, un~ 
equal warts, which are roughened by sharp, conical papilhie, eight or 
ten on the larger warts, but otity two or three on the smaller ones ; 
the warts diminish in size anteriorly, and on the sides, before they 
disappear; around the eyes they form irregular circles ; just above 
each of the eyes there are two much larger ones, bearing more than 
twenty conical papillae ; there is one before and one behind these, of 
somewhat smaller size. Eyes large, the lower lid purple and thick- 
ened, overlapping the upper one, which is thin and whitish. 

Arms considerably longer than the head and body, not very stout, 
compressed, bearing a single crowded row of large whitish suckers, 
which are mostly separated by spaces less than half their diameter ; 
margins of suckers soft and much thickened. The three lower pairs 
of arms are very nearly equal in length and size ; the dorsal ones are 
a little shorter and smaller. A thin web unites all the arms for about 
one-fourth of their length, and runs up along their sides for about 
half their length. The male has the third right arm (Plate LII, fig. 
1, la) hectocotylized at the tip ; the modified tip is preceded by forty- 
five suckers, and is bordered ventrally by a broad membrane, having 
a white groove along its inner surface ; the terminal organ (tig. \a) 
consists of a small, ovate-triangular, fleshy disk, with its inner sur- 
face slightly concave and finely wi'inkled transversely, and terminat- 
ing proxinially m a small point. 

Color dark purplish brown, darker purple beneath. Chromato- 
phores small and densely crowded. 

The female is considerably larger than the male, and has the warts 
over the back and around the eyes relatively smaller, but of the same 
character. The arms appear to be larger than those of the male, but 
this is probably due to the fact that the male has become more con- 
tracted by the stronger alcohol in which it was placed. 

This female specimen illustrates well the uselessness of the at- 
tempts to divide the species of Octopus and allied genera into groups 
or sections, according to the relative length of the arms, as J. E. 
Gray and others have done, for in this and many other cases the pro- 
portions of the arms of the right side would throw it into one sec- 
tion ; those of the left side into another. The male would have to be 
put into a third section. 

The two known examples of this species were taken by Mr. A. 
Agassiz, while dredging on the United States Coast Survey steamer 
" Blake," in 1880. 



382 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopoda. 



Measurements in millimeters. 



Total length 

End of body to center of eye 

Breadth of body 

Breadth across eyes 

Length of dorsal arms, from mouth 

Length of second pair of arms 

Length of third pair of arms 

Length of hectocotjdized arm 

Length of modified tip 

Length of ventral arms _. 

Greatest breadth of lateral arms 

Diameter of largest suckers 








Specimens examined. 








No. 


Stat. 


Locality. 


Fath. 


When 
rec'd. 


Specimens. 
No. Sex. 


12 
1,3 


305 
312 


K Lat. 41° 33' 15" ; W. Long. 65° 51' 25" 
N. Lat. 39° 50' 45",; W. Long. 70° 11' 


810 
466 


1880 
1880 


1 S 
1 ? 



Family CIRRHOTEUTHID^ Keff. 

Kefferstein, in Bronn, Thier-Reich, iii, p. 1448, 1866. 

Body somewhat elongated, furnished witli a short, thick tapering 
fin on each side, supported by an internal transverse cartilage. Man- 
tle extensively united to the head. No connective cartilages. Arms 
united together nearly to the tips by a broad umbrella-shaped mem- 
brane or web. Suckers in a single row, alternating with slender cirri. 
Stauroteuthis Verriii. 

Verrill, American Journal of Science, vol. xviii, p. 468, Dec, 1879. 
Allied to Cirrhoteuthis, but with the mantle united to the head all 
around, and to the dorsal side of the slender siphon, which it sur- 
rounds like a close collar, leaving only a very narrow opening around 
the base of the siphon, laterally and ventrally. Fins long-triangular, 
in advance of the middle of the body. Dorsal cartilage forming a 
median angle, directed backward. Body flattened, soft, bordered by 
a membrane. Eyes covered by the integument. Web not reaching 
the tips of the arms, the edge concave in the intervals. Suckers in 
one row, with a pair of slender cirri alternating with them along most 
of the arm. Cirri absent between the basal and terminal suckers. 
Stauroteuthis syrtensis Yerriii. 

Amer, .Tour. Sci., vol. .xviii, p. 468, Dec, 1879; xix, p. 294, pi. xvi, Apr., 1880. 

Plate XXXll, figures 1-5. 
Female: Head broad, depressed, not very distinct from the body. 
Eyes large. Body elongated, flattened, soft or gelatinous, widest in 



A. E. Verrill — IVort/i American Cephalopods. 383 

the middle, narrowed bat little forward, but decidedly tapered, back of 
the fins, to the flat, obtuse, or subtruncate tail. The sides of the 
head and of the body, forward of the fins, are bordered by a thin 
soft membrane, about 12'"'" wide. The fins are elongated, sub-tri- 
angulai', obtusely pointed, placed in advance of the middle of the 
body ; supported by internal cartilages, which imite with a trans- 
verse dorsal V-shaped one, situated behind the fins. Siphon elonga- 
ted (about 12"""), slendei', round, with a small terminal opening. 
Mantle edge is contracted and thickened around the base of the siphon 
so as to show only a very small opening, and is united to its ante- 
rior or dorsal commissural band. Eyes large, distinctly visible 
through the integument. Arms long, slender, sub-equal, each united 
to the great web by a broad membrane developed on its outer side, 
widest (about 38""" or 1*5 inches) in the middle of the arm, while the 
edge of the web unites directly to the sides of the arms and runs 
along the free portion toward the very slender tip, as a border. 
This arrangement gives a swollen or campanulate form to the 
extended web. Edges of the web incurved between the arms, widest 
between the two lateral pairs of arms. The arms bear each fifty- 
five or more suckers, in a single row. Those in the middle region 
are wide-apart (12'""' or more), w^ith a pair of slender, thread-like 
cirri, about 25 to 32""" long, midway between them. The cirri com- 
mence, in a rudimentary form, between the 5th and 6th suckers, on 
the dorsal arms, and between the 7th and 8th, on the lateral and 
ventral ones. They cease before the 23d sucker on the dorsal and 
lateral arms, and before the 22d on the ventral ones, which bear each 
14 pairs of cirri. Near the mouth, and beyond the last cirri, on the free 
portion of the arms, the suckers are more closely arranged. The jaws 
are small, with a deep cavity. Beyond the last cirri, on the dorsal 
arms, there are 33 to 35 small suckers. The 2d arm on the right 
side appears to be imperfect. On this arm there are but 19 suckers 
beyond the last cirri ; then follow minute, wart-like tubercles, extend- 
ing to the tip. Color, in alcohol, generally pale with irregular mot- 
tlings and streaks of dull brownish ; inner surface of arms and web, 
toward the base, and membrane around the mouth, deep purplish 
brown. Length from end of body to base of arms, 160"""; length 
to posterior base of fins, 63'""' ; to anterior base, lOl'""' ; width across 
fins, 126'""'; in advance of fins, 53'"'" (not including lateral mem- 
brane) ; across eyes, 44""" ; across end of tail, 30"'"' ; diameter of 
eye, 25'"'"; width of fins, at base, 33'""'; their length, 44'"'"; length 
of arms, 330""" to 355""" ; portion beyond web, 63 to 76'"'". Edge 
of extended web, between upper arms, about 101""" ; between lateral 



384 A. E. Verrlll — N'orth Aitierlcan. Cephalopods. 

arms, about 203""" ; entire circumference of web, about 1218"'"', but 
its exact extent cannot be ascertained, because, in our specimen, the 
web between the ventral arms was badly torn. 

The only known example of this remarkable species was taken by 
Capt. Melvin Gilpatrick and crew, schooner *' Polar Wave," in N. lat. 
43° 54'; W. long. 58° 44', on Banquereau, about 30 miles E. of Sable 
I., N. 8., in 250 fathoms. Presented to the U. S. Fish Commission, 
Sept. 18V9 (lot 472). 

Motes on the Visceral Anatomy. 

The anatomy of this species is very peculiar, but as the original 
specimen still remains unique, and is not in very good pi'eservation, 
internally, I do not propose to give more than a few anatomical notes 
on this occasion. The ventral wall of the mantle cavity is exten- 
sively bound down to the visceral mass over a wide central area, by 
connective and muscular tissue, which does not form a definite sep- 
tum, found in most other Dibranchiata. This central area underlies, 
especially, the large nidamental glands and oviduct. Farther back 
the two sides of the branchial cavity are in communication. 

The gills are very peculiar. Each one consists of a short aiul 
broad, ovate group or cluster of very much folded or convoluted 
lamellae attached directly to the inner surface of the mantle by one 
edge, and having the free edge much frilled and crisped. 

These lamellpe have, however, a somewhat transverse arrange- 
ment, and one or two of those nearest the base of the gill, on each 
side of its median line, are more simple, and are separate from the 
rest, but those farther out become confluent across the median line, 
and lose their distinctness. There appears to be about four or live 
principal lamella? on each side of the middle line of the gill. 

The oviduct is single and nearly median, its orifice being a little 
to the left of the median line. A large nidamental gland, consisting 
of a posterior, yellowish portion, and a much larger, round, dark 
brown, anterior portion, surrounds the oviduct; the portion behind 
these glands is thin, tubular, and contains large round ova. 

The anterior portion, in front of the glands, is large and much 
thickened, and terminat(;s in a slightly biiibiate orifice, at the base 
of the siphon. B'rom the portion of the oviduct in front of the large 
glands I took a large mature egg, covered with a hard, dark reddish 
brown case. This egg, seen endwise, has a broad elliptical outline, 
and while the two ends are truncated and smoothish, the sides are 
ornamented with numerous regular, roughened, elevated ribs. 
Greatest breadth of the egg, 11"'"'; lesser breadth, 7'"'"; length, 6"'"'. 
The anal orifice is not raised on a distinct elevation. A small ure- 
thral papilla arises in front of the base of each gill. 



APPENDIX 



Since the earlier parts of tliis article were printed, a number of 
additional specimens of some of tlie species have been received. 
Some of these are of importance, as affording additional information 
in regard to the genera and species, and will, therefore, be mentioned 
here. 

I have also received from Prol'essor J, Steenstiup two recent 
pamphlets,* relating to the Onmiastrephidm and Teuthidce., printed 
subsequently to the publication of the pages rehiting to those families 
in this article. As these refer directly to the genera and species 
herein described, they may well be briefly noticed here. 

Ommastrephes, Sthenoteuthis, Illex, etc. 

Professor Steenstrup, in the first paper referred to, has given a 
revision of the Ommastrephes-group. He divides the old genus 
Ommastrephes into three genera, viz : I. Illex, which includes O. 
illecehrosiis, with Coindetii, the closely allied Mediterranean form ; 
II. ToDARODES, which includes only the well-known Om>mastrep}ies 
todarus of the Mediterranean, to which he restores the name sagitta- 
tus Lamarck, which has been otherwise employed by other authors 
during half a century past ; III. OMMATOsxREPHEsf (restricted), 
which corresponds exactly with 8the7ioteiithis\ previously established 
by me. (These Trans,, p 222, February, 1880). 

* De Omraatostrephagtige Blsekspnitter indbyrdes Forliold <;Oversight over d. k. D. 
Vidensk. 8elsk. Forhandl., 1880. Presented, April, 1880. [Author's edition received 
Aug., 1880]. 

Professor A.. E. Verrils [sicj to nye Cephalopodsli«gter, Sthenoteuthis og Lestoteu- 
this. Bemasrkninger og Berigtigelser, 1 pi. ["avec uu resume en Franeais," not 
received]. From the same, 1881. Advance copy received by me, through the 
kindness of the author, is dated, in MSS., March 3, 1881. 

f I can see no necessity for the proposed reformation of the original spelling of this 
word by changing it to •' Ommatostrephes,^' for usage justifies the elision of a syllable 
in so long a name. The original spelling has been in good use for over forty years. 

:j: Professor Steenstrup also quotes Cycria Gray, 1849 (ex Leach MSS.), as a syn- 
onym of Ommastrephes as restricted, = Sthenoteuthis. But in reality it was evidently 
intended for a group equivalent to Ommastrephes, in the extended sense, and as a 
complete synonym, never in use, it should be dropped. Hyaloteuthis Gray, if 
used at all, should be used in the limited sense, for a minor group, as originally 
intended. 



386 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

In anotlier part of this article he refers* to my paper, which had 
been promi»tly sent to him, but lie makes no reference whatever to 
the genus fSthenoteuthis, nor to the species, iS. meydpf.era., which, as a 
species, had been described by me still earlier (1878) and in far 
greater detail than most of the other species which he mentions, and 
which should, under his system of classification, bear the name of 
Ommastrephes niegaptera. Nor does he ])oint out any new charac- 
ters for distinguishing this generic group other than those first given 
by me, viz: the presence of connective suckers and tubercles on the 
tentacular arms proximal to the club, and the great development of 
the membranes on the lateral arms. 

Under the ordinary rule of nomenclature, by which the first cor- 
rect subdivision made in an older genus shall be entitled to priority, 
while the original name shall be retained for the remaining grou|>, 
the name Sthenoteuthis ought to be maintained for the division first 
established by me, while Ommastrephea (restricted) should be retained 
for a part or all of the remaining species.f While I very much 
regret this confusion of names, I perceive no way to remedy it except 
by the a])plication of the usual rules of priority. 

As for the distinction between Illex and Todarodes, it seems to me 
very slight and scarcely of generic importance. Illex is characterized 
by having eight rows of small suckers on the dislal part of the club, 
and a smooth siphonal groove. Todarodes is characterized by having 
four rows of distal suckers and some small grooves or furrows at the 
anterior end of the siphonal groove. 

But I have a species (which I refer to 0. Sloanei Gray), from Tas- 
mania, which agrees with Illex in having a smooth siphonal groove, 
but with Todarodes in having only four rows of distal tentacular 
suckers, and in the sharp denticulation of its large suckers. Accord- 
ing to Steenstrup's system this would have to be made still another 
o-enus or else his generic characters would have to be greatly 

* In discussing (p. 233, foot note) my statements in respect to the sexual difEer- 
ences in proportions. It is to be hoped that Prof. Steenstriip will lind in the tables 
of measurements given in the preceding pages all the data needed to settle this 
matter more satisfactorily. 

f Professor Steenstrup considers 0. Bartramii as the " typical " species of Omma- 
strephes. But in fact D'Orbigny did not give any particular species as the type of his 
genus. His description applies better to such forms as 0. todarus and 0. illecebrosus, 
for he does not mention the connective tubercles and suckers of the tentacular arms. 
Nor is it certain that 0. gigas, one of the earliest species referred to this genus, has 
such structures. The species thus named, even by Professor Steenstrup, is so called 
only w^ith a mark of doubt. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 08 7 

changed in order to admit it into either of his groups. The existence 
of eight rows of suckers in '•Illex' seems to be due merely to the crowd- 
ing together of the ordinary four rows ; nor can we attach much im- 
portance to the superficial furrows in the siphon-groove. Therefore, 
my own opinion still is that Illex and Todarodes should be reunited, 
and should retain the name Omrnastrephes, in a restricted sense. 
The absence of connective suckers and tubercles on the tentacular 
arms will be the most important diagnostic character to distinguish 
it from Sthenoteuthis and Architeuthis. 

In this paper, Professor Steenstrup gives figures (cuts) which, with 
the descriptive remarks, will, at last, enable others to identify his S. 
pteropus with more certainty. He has given diagramatic cuts of the 
base of the tentacular clubs, showing the arrangement of the con- 
nective suckers and tubercles of S. pteropus, S. Bartramii, S. gigas, 
S. pelagicus, S. oualaniensis, and Dosidicus Eschrichtii [p. 11], and 
cuts [p. 9], showing the siphonal grooves of k^thenoteuthh pteropus, S. 
Bartramii, S. pacificus, Ommastrephes sagittatus {■=.'■'■ 0. todarus''') , 
and 0. Coindetii (="0. sagittatus^'' auth.). On pp. 19 and 20 he 
has given a synoptical table of the several genera that he recognizes 
in this group, wliich he names, Ommatostephini (= Ommastrephidm 
Gill, Tryon, Verrill). On plate 3, he figures '■'•Illex Coindetii,'''' fe- 
male, with the gill-cavity opened, showing a large cluster of sperma- 
tophoi'es attached to the inner surface of the mantle, behind the base 
of the gill, and a smaller one, in front of the gill. 

In the second article referred to, Professor Steenstrup discusses 
the genus Sthenoteuthis versus " Ormno.tostrephes.'''' He recognizes 
the identity of Sthenoteuthis and his restricted genus Oniniato- 
strephes, as well as the priority of date of the former. He also refers 
to S. megaptera, as " Omniatostrephes megaptera?'' 

Lestoteuthis^ Cheloteuthis^= Go?iatus Steenst. (non Giay). 

The second of Professor Steenstrup's papers contains a detailed 
discussion of Gonatns Fahricii Steenst., with which he also unites 
Onychoteuthis Kamtschatica Midd., the type-species of my genus 
lestoteuthis (see p. 250). He may be correct in uniting these 
forms, for he states that he has received specimens that agree with 
Gonatus Fahricii, from the North Pacific* Moreover, taking the 
characters of the genus Gonatus, as noio understood, by Professor 

* Tlie figures, however, show differences in the form of the pen and caudal flj| 
which, if correct, may still indicate specific differences. 
Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol V. 46 Octobek, U 



LI B R A R 



til 



388 ^-1, E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

Steenstnip, the description and figures of Middendorff's species apply 
well to that genus, and my description of Lestoteuthis well defines 
Gonatus Steenst., except for the mistake in regard to the tip of the 
pen. But when I proposed the genus Lestoteuthis^ no writer had ever 
so described Gotuitas, and the data necessary for the correlation of 
the two species did not exist in the literature of the subject. I have 
already alluded (pp. 290-292 and elsewhere), to some of the very 
serious errors of Gray, H. & A. Adams, and others, as to the generic 
and even family characters of Gonatus.^ Professor Steenstrup, in 
his last paper, has exposed a greater number of errors, some of which 
are questionable. He has, however, been fortunate in securing 
specimens of larger size and in better condition than those examined 
by other writers, and has given good figures and a very full exposi- 
tion of the characters of this very interesting species. Two excellent 
specimens were taken by our party, this season, on the "Fish Hawk." 
One of these is an adult male ; the other is young, with the mantle 
3()mm loi^g^ The latter agrees well in size and form with the specimen 
described and figured l)y G. O. Sars, as Gonatus amcenus, while the 
formerf agrees with Steenstrup's figure of the adult G. Fabricli. 
But both differ decidedly from a Cumberland Gulf specimen, which 
is doubtless the real Gonatus amoenus Gray, and has four rows of 
true suckers on all the arms, and no hooks. It does not appear that 
Steenstrup has seen this form. 

The fortunate acquisition of these specimens has enabled me 
to ascertain, for myself, not only that Professor Steenstrup is correct 
in considering two forms that have been described from the North 

* The genus Gonatus, as established by J. B. Gray, if we judge by his description, 
was a very different group from what Steenstrup understands by it. Among tlie false 
characters given by him are the following: 1, It was said to have no eyelids; 2, to 
have no valve in the siphon; 3, to have no siphonal dorsal band. But he also says 
that it has nearly equal and similar suckers in four series, on all the arms, " all with 
small circular rings"; and the club was said to have "ranges of small, nearly sessile, 
equal-sized cups," with one "large sessile cup, armed with a hook in the middle of 
the lower part." From the fact that he received his specimens from Greenland (coll. 
Moller), we must believe that he actually had before him the real G. amoenus ! My 
specimen from Cumberland Gulf has true suckers, as described by Gray, on all 
the arms. 

Most of Gray's errors have been copied and adopted by Woodward, H. & A. Adams, 
Tryon, and many other writers. 

f I have had figures of the larger specimen made by Mr. Kmerton, for my Report on 
the Cephalopods, now printing in the Report of the U. S. Pish Commission, for 1879. 
Some of these are also reproduced on Plate LV, figs. 1-ld 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopoda. 389 

Atlantic, as simply the young and adult of tliu same species, but also 
that all the essential and peculiar features of the armature, both of 
the sessile and of the tentacular arms, including the special, lateral 
connective suckers and tubercles of the club, are present, thougli 
minute, even in the very young individuals, such as described by G. 
O. Sars. The fact that these characters have been overlooked is 
undoubtedly due, in many cases, to the imperfectly preserved speci- 
mens that have been examined. This was, at least, the case with 
the only American specimens seen by me until this year. They had 
all been taken from fish stomachs, and had lost more or less of their 
suckers and hooks. 

A careful direct comparison of the adult G. Fabricii, with the 
mutilated specimen which was last year described by me as Gheloteit- 
this rapax^ has convinced me that they are identical, and, therefore, 
Cheloteuthis becomes a synonym of Lestotevthis. Two of the char- 
acters, viz : the supposed presence of two central roics of hooks on 
the ventral, as well as on the lateral arms, and the supposed ab- 
sence of the small marginal suckers on the lateral arms, relied upon 
for characterizing Cheloteuthis, were doubtless due to post-mortem 
changes. The ventral arms had lost the horny rings of the suckers, 
and the soft parts had taken a form exceedingly like that of the 
sheaths of the hooks of the lateral arms. But by the careful use of 
reagents I have been able to restore the original form of some of the 
distal ones sufficiently to show that they actually were sucker-sheaths. 
The third character, originally considered by me as more reliable and 
important, was the existence of the peculiar, lateral connective suck- 
ers and alternating tubercles on the tentacular club. This is now 
shown by Professor Steeustrup to be a character of his Gonatus. But 
no one had previously described such a structure in connection with 
that genus. Even in the recent and excellent work of G. O. Sars, in 
which " G. amoenus''' is described in some detail, and freely illustrated, 
there is no indication of any such striictiire, although the armature 
of the club is figured (see my PI. 45, fig. 1/;), nor is the difference 
between the armature of the ventral and lateral arms indicated.* 

I add a new description of the genus Lestoteuthis, and also of my 
largest example of L. Fabricii. 

*According to Gray, in Gonatus all the sessile arms bear four rows of similar and 
nearly equal suckers ; according to G. 0. Sars they all have two central rows of 
sucker-hooks. My description (p. 290) was based mainly on the figures and description 
of G. 0. Sars, my only specimen, at that time, being an imperfect young one. 



890 ^4. E. Vtrr'dl — J^ortli American Cephalopods. 

LestOteuthis Venill, (revised). 

Gonatus Steenstrup, op. cit., pp. 9-26, (non Gray). 

Gonatus Verril!, this volume, pp. 250, 290, 1880, (non Gray). 

Lestoteuthis Verrill, this volume, p. 250, Feb., 1880. 

Cheloteuthis ( Chiloteuthis by typ. error) Verrill, this volume, p. 292, Jan., 1881. 

Cheloteuthls Verrill, Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zool., viii, p. 109, March, 1881. 

Oilontopliore willi only five rows of teeth.* Mandibles very acute, 
strongly compressed. Lateral connective cartilages of the mantle are 
simple ridges ; those of the siphon ovate. Nuchal olfactory crests one 
or more on each side, longitudinal. Caudal fin, of adult, large, spear- 
shaped. Ventral arms with four rows of denticulated suckers. No 
trace of hectocotylization detected.f Lateral and dorsal arms with 
two marginal rows of small suckers and two median rows of large 
hooks. Tentacular arms with a central row of hooks, the two distal 
ones largest ; with a large distal and two lateral groups of small 
suckers, in numerous rows ; and with a lateral group of peculiar con- 
nective suckers, alternating Avith tubercles, near the lower margin, 
and a row of smaller ones extending for a long distance down the 
margin of the arm; upper margin of the arm with a band of small, 
pediceled suckers along about half its length. Pen narrow, with a 
short, hollow, posterior cone. 

Gonatus Gray, typical, {non Sars, Steenst.) diflfers in having four 
rows of true suckers, similar on all the arms. This may be a sexual 
character, but the two forms should be kept separate, awaiting 
farther evidence. Steenstrup does not give the sex of his specimens, 

Lestoteuthis Fabricii (Licht.) Vernll. (See pp. 291-294.) 
? Onychoteuthis Kamtschatica Middendorff, 1849. 

Gonatus Fabricii Steenstrup (pars), in Morch, Faunula MoUuscorum Ins. Fjeroerne, 
Vid. Meddel. nat. For., 1867, p. 102 ; Faunula Mollusc. Islandias, Vid. Meddel. 
nat. For. Kjobenliavn, 1868, p. 227. 
Gonatus Fabricii Morch {pars), in T. K. Jones, Arctic Manual, p. 130, 1875. 
Steenstrup, Oversigt over d. Kongl. D. Vidensk. Selsk. Forh., 1881. [Sep. copy, 

p. 26,] pi. l.figs. 1-7. 
Verrill, (pars) this volume, p. 291. 
Cheloteuthis rapax Verrill, this volume, p. 293, pi. 49, figs, 1-1''; Bulletin Mus. 
Comp. Zool., viii, p. 110, pi. 2, figs. 1-1*', 1881; Report U. S. Fish Com. for 
1879, p. [76], pi. 15, figs. 3-3f, 4, dentition, 1881. 
Lestoteuthis Fabricii Verrill. Report of U. S. Fish Com. for 1879, p. [79], pi. 15, 
figs. l-V, 2-2^ pi. 45, figs. 1-1'', 1881. 

* The dentition of the type-specimen of Cheloteuthis rapax was figured and described 
by me, several months ago, in the report of the U. S. Fish Com., for 1879. 

•j- My largest specimen, although apparently adult, is not sejjually mature. An 
older specimen might be hectocotylized. 



A. M Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 391 

Plate XLV, pig. l-2d. Plate XLIX, fig. 1-1/ Plate LV, fig. l-\cl. 

Body elongated, tapering to an acute posterior end ; anterior edge 
of mantle nearly even dorsally, with a slight median emargination ; lat- 
eral angles well-marked, in line with the internal connective carti- 
lage, which forms a long, simple, longitudinal ridge. Caudal fin 
broad spear-shaped, broadest in advance of the middle ; the lateral 
angles are well rounded; the tij) is very acute; the anterior lobes are 
broadly rounded, projecting forward beyond the insertion. Head 
large, short and broad ; eyes large, occupying most of the sides of 
the head ; eye-lids well developed, thickened, with a narrow, oblique 
sinus. Siphon large, in a deep groove, with two stout, dorsal bri- 
dles; lateral connective cartilages large, long-ovate, posterior end 
broadest. One olfactory crest on each side, behind the eye, in 
the form of a low, longitudinal membrane; slight indications of 
another, lower down ; a small, fleshy, flattened, projecting papilla 
near the auditory opening. The outer buccal membrane has seven 
distinct angles. Arms rather long and strong ; trapezoidal in sec- 
tion. The dorsal arms are considerably shorter than the others ; 
order of length is 1, 2, 4, 3 ; the 3d is but little longer than the 
second pair; ventral arms decidedly more slender than the others. 

Ventral arms with four rows of denticulated suckers, those of the two 
inner rows larger; lateral and dorsal arms with two marginal rows of 
small suckers and two inner roAvs of larger incurved hooks, enclosed, 
except at the sharp tips, in muscular sheaths, which have lateral basal 
expansions and short pedicels (PI. LV, fig. lb). Tentacular arms* long 
and strong, quadrangular ; in my specimen they reach back beyond 
the base of the fin ; the club is large and broad, with a long, 
narrow distal portion, having a strong dorsal keel ; in the middle are 
two very large, curved hooks (fig. 1, la), the distal one smaller; 
proximal to these there is a row of five smaller hooks, decreasing 
proximally, and between these and the large hooks there is, on 
one arm, a single small sucker ; on the other arm a single sucker 
takes the place of the proximal hook, while an odd, small sucker 
stands to one side of the row ; along the upper margin of the club 
there is a broad band of small, denticulated suckers, on long ped- 
icels, arranged in oblique, transverse rows of five or six ; this band 
of suckers is interrupted opposite the large hooks ; beyond the hooks 

*The figure given (pi. XLIX, fig. 1,) of the somewhat injured tentacular club of 
the type of Gheloieuthis rapax, represents the structure nearly correctly, but many of 
the small suckers and tubercles on the arm, below the club, had been destroyed, the 
edge above e' is injured, and of the large hooks (a, a') only the sheaths remain. 



392 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopoda. 

a large group of similar small suckers covers nearly the whole distal 
portion of the chib (PI. LV, fig, 1) ; at the tij) of the club there is 
a circle of small smooth suckers ; along the lower margin of the 
middle portion of the club there is a band of small slickers, like those 
on the other margin ; along the basal third of the margin and sup- 
ported on a thickened marginal expansion of the club, there is a row 
of six special, smooth, connective suckers, at the inner ends of trans- 
verse, muscular ridges (fig. 1, e) ; between and alternating with these 
suckers, there are deep pits and as many siuall, round tubercles, 
destined to fit the suckers and ridges of the other club ; continuous 
with these a row of similar, but smaller, sessile, connective Slickers 
and tubercles extends doAvn along the margin of the inner face of 
the arm, for about half its leugth, becoming smaller and more sim- 
ple proximally; an irregular band, formed of two or three rows 
of small, pediceled and denticulated suckers, extends down the 
other margin of the arm, with some scattered ones along the middle. 

The pen (PI. LV, fig. 1 d) is thin, long and narrow ; anterior part about 
half as wide as the middle portion, slender, concave, with thickened 
mai'gins ; the anterior end is very thin, acute; the two marginal ribs 
converge gradually, as they run backward, and unite near the pos- 
terior end ; the widest part of the pen is a little behind the middle ; 
the thin margins begin at about the anterior third, gradually in- 
creasing in width to the widest part, when they still more gradually 
decrease posteriorly; but toward the end they expand into the 
obliquely hooded portion, or terminal hollow cone ; this portion is 
strengthened by a dorsal mid-rib, and by numerous small ribs which 
radiate forward from the tip, one on each side being stronger than the 
rest. In life, the cone contained part of the testicle, and at the tip a 
cartilaginous core. Length of pen, in alcohol, 133""" ; greatest breadth, 
/jram. of shaft, 2-5'""'; length of cone, on shortest side, 7'"'". 

General color of body, fins, head and arms, deep reddish brown, 
tinged with purple ; back darkest ; the color is due to large chro- 
matophores rather uniformly and closely scattered over the whole 
surface ; on the arms and siphon they are smaller, but they cover all 
the surfaces of the arms, except tlie lower side of the tentacular arms 
and the face of the club. Total length, 2G3™™ (10-25 inches) ; length 
of mantle, 153""" (6 inches) ; length of dorsal arms, 57"""; of 2d pair, 
71'""' ; of 3d pair, 77""^' ; of 4th pair, 70""" ; of tentacular arras, 100""" ; 
length of tail, from insertion, G3""" ; from anterior lobe, 70""" ; greatest 
breadth, 68"'"' ; breadth of head, 29""". 



A. M Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 393 

Noteson the visceral atiatomy of the male. 

In its anatomy this species resembles Ornmastrephes. The brancliial 
cavity is very large, extending back nearly to the base of the fin ; 
the median longitndinal septum is far back, gills very long, but not 
reaching the margin of the mantle, attached nearly to the tip ; its 
structure is like that of Ornmastrephes. Liver orange-brown, very 
large, massive, neai'ly as in Ornmastrephes^ but larger, extending back 
farther than the base of the fin. The circulatory and renal systems 
ai'e similar to those of Ornmastrephes, in most respects. The posterior 
aorta goes back some distance before it divides, about opposite the 
base of the fin, into the raedio-ventral artery of the mantle, and a 
caudal artery. Two large ventral renal organs lie below and to each 
side of the heart, and blend together, in front of it, into a large mass, 
which has a pointed lobe extending forward ; posteriorly two lobes 
extend back, as usual, along the posterior vensB-cavoe. The first 
stomach is rounded and the second stomach is a large, long-pyriform 
sac ; the intestine is long, the ink-sac is long-pyriform. The repro- 
ductive organs are small, indicating that the specimen is still imma- 
ture, and probably only one year old. The spermary or "testicle" 
is small (length 18""", diameters 2'""' and 4'""^), flattened, tapering 
backward, partly enclosed by the hooded portion of the pen, and 
with tlie anterior end attached laterally to the posterior end of the 
caecal lobe of the stomach. The prostate gland, vesicula^-seminales 
and spermatophore-sac are small ; the efferent duct is long and slen- 
der, extending forward over and beyond the base of the left gill. 

Moroteuthis, gen. nov. 
Type, Onyclioteuthis (or Lestoteuthisf) robusta, this vol., pp. 246-250. 
Moroteuthis rohusta Verrill, Report of the TJ. S. Fish Commission for 1879, pp. 
[65-71], pis. 13 and 14, 1881. 

After referring the type of Lestoteiithis to Gonatus (not of Gray), 
Professor Sleenstrup admits that the gigantic species, L. robusta V., 
Is the representative of a distinct genus, to which he would restrict 
the name Lestoteiithis. 

But L. KamtscJiatica was specially given by me as the type of Les- 
toteutlds, and the characters of the genus were derived entirely 
from that species, while L. robusta was referred to it only with great 
doubt, owing to the fact that its armature is almost unknown. 
Therefore, if Lestoteiithis hereafter becomes a complete synonvm, it 
should be dropped, when it cannot be kept for its special type-species. 
For the gigantic species I have proposed (Am. Jour. Sci., xxii, p. 
298, Oct., 1881,) a new genus, Moroteuthis. 



394 ^1. E. Verrill — NortJi Americcui Gephalopods. 

This genus will have, as known characters: A long, narrow, thin 
pen, terminating posteriorly in a conical, hollow, many-ribbed, oblique 
cone, which is inserted into the oblique, anterior end of a long, round, 
tapering, acute, solid^ cartilaginous terminal cone, composed of con- 
centric layers, and corresponding to the solid cone of Helonnitesm posi- 
tion and relation to the true pen ; elliptical connective cartilages on 
the base of the siphon ; nuchal, longitudinal crests, three, much as 
in Ommastrephes ; eye-lids with a distinct sinus ; caudal fin large, 
broad, spear-shaped, ventral arms with smooth-rimmed suckers at tlie 
base. The rest of the armature is unknown. 

Moroteitthis rohusta is the only known species. 

Architeuthis Harting, 1861. (See pp. 197, 238, 239.) 
Architeutlms Steenstrup, Forhandl. Skand. Naturf., 1856, vii, p. 182, 1857 (no 
description). 

The cliaracters of this genus, as given on p. 197, must be modified, 
so far as the pe^i is concerned, in accordance with the description 
given below. 

Professor Steenstrup, in the second of the papers above cited (see 
p. 385) criticises me (and others) for writing Architeuth/s instead of 
Architeuth?/s, as he originally spelled the word. So far as 1 am per- 
sonally concerned, I am free to confess that I liad always supposed that 
his original spelling was a typographical error, and as the genus at 
that time was merely named^ l)ut in no sense established nor defined, 
as a matter of necessity I adopted the name as spelled in the earliest 
published work (that of Harting), in whicli the characters of the 
geniis were so far indicated as to make it possible to recognize it. 
Harting states that he was in correspondence with Professor Steen- 
strup, in regard to this genus, and that he had received from him 
drawings and proofs of unpublished plates of Architeuthis. There- 
fore, the blame, if any, for the change in spelling, must rest mainly 
with Harting. Moreover, Gervais, who had seen and briefly described 
Professor Steenstrup's specimens, also wrote Architeuthis, and that 
has been the general practice with nearly all European writers, for 
twenty years. Therefore, T do not see the propriety of specially 
criticising Mr. Tryon and myself for using this spelling, which 
has been so extensively adopted in Europe. 

That the original form of the word would have been preferable, I 
do not deny. But that there is any special impropriety in the ter- 
mination teutJiis, even for a large cephalopod, it is useless to insist 
upon, for that termination has been generally adopted by many 
writers, and during many years, for several genera, living and fossil, 



A. E. Yerrill — North American Cephalopoch. 395 

of both large and small ccphalopods. Thus Professor Steenstrxip, 
himself, notwithstanding his demonstration of the etymological absurd- 
ity of the names, uses '•'• Enoploteuthis^'' '■^Lestoteuthis'''' for genera 
that include species about as large and powerful as ArcMteuthus. 
Although teuthis, in classical Greek, may signify a small and iceak 
cephalopod, as a zoological term it no longer has that meaning. 
But if the change had not been made by others, apparently with 
good 7'easons, I should certainly not have adopted it, for it is not in 
accordance with ray pi-actice to change or "reform" the original 
spelling of generic or specific names, unless for very urgent and 
obvious reasons. 

On the tentacular club of this and numerous other related genera, 
there is a peculiarity that I have not seen definitely described. 
Between the rows of large suckers there is, as described already, 
a central zigzag ridge, which sends ofi:' transverse ridges between 
the suckers, defining shallow pits around each sucker-pedicel. These 
pits are lined, however, with a thin, partially free membrane, which 
surrounds the base of the pedicel, like a collar, leaving an open 
space on all sides, except the inner, where it is attached to the 
pedicel. The space beneath this membrane freely communicates 
with the spaces beneath the other sucker-pits, by means of open 
spaces beneath the zigzag central and transverse ridges. 

A similar structure, but less developed, exists in Om,mastrephes, 
Histioteuthis, Loligo and other genera. These collai'-like mem- 
branes are probably able to erabi-ace and support the pedicels, when 
the suckers are in action. 

Architeuthis Harveyi Yerriii. (See pp. i97, 259.) 

Since the publication of the descriptions of this species I have 
made a more thorough examination of the various mutilated frag- 
ments of the pen, and have compared them more fully with the cor- 
res|)onding parts of the pen, in other genera. From these studies I 
became convinced that the portions of the pen formerly supposed by 
me to belong to the anterior, really belong to the posterior end.* 
Consequently the description on pages 206-208, should be corrected 
by substituting posterior for anterior, throughout, with other con- 
cordant changes. The explanation of the figure (PI. XV, fig. 3) 
should also be corrected, in the sanle way. To correct this mistake 

* Tlie descriptioQ of the pen was corrected in my Report on Cephalopods (pp. 31- 
33] in the Report of tiie U. S. Fish Commissioner, put in type last year. 
Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 4.7 November, 1881. 



396 A. E. VerriU — N'orth American Cephcdopods. 

more effectually, I here give a new description of the pen, based 
on tliese fragments, arranged as I now understand the i'orm and 
sti'ucture. 

New description of the pen of ArcJiiteuthis JIarveyi V. 

The parts preserved all belong to the posterior blade, which is 
now flattened and much mutilated, but it was very thin and broad, 
running out to attenuated borders ; and it apparently had a small, 
acute,' hooded terminal portion, or thin hollow cone, perhaps only 
two or three inches long, while the broad blade itself must have been 
more than two feet long and upward of a foot wide, when flattened 
oiit. No part ol the narrow anterior shaft, which probably existed, 
is preserved. 

The extreme posterior end is gone, but the convergent ribs indi- 
cate that it tapered to a point ; each edge of the i)resent end, for 
rather more than an inch, is thickened by a more divergent marginal 
rib, running into the edge and disappearing, while the edges here 
appear to have been toi'n apart, and this portion appears to have 
constituted the hooded portion ; beyond this the margins run out to 
a very thin and ill-defined edge. The midrib, or dorsal keel, is at 
first sharply angular Avith a triangular section, and the slender lateral 
costa; are completely confluent with it, but a little farther forward 
these begin to become distinct and slightly divergent, till at about 
ten inches from the end they are about an inch from the midrib; 
except close to the posterior end, the midrib is regularly rounded, or 
nearly semi-cylindrical. Near the posterior end there are three or 
four other slightly thickened, divergent ribs, on each side, between 
the midrib and the margin, but all these, except the inner ones, soon 
run obliquely to the margins and disappear; probably these mark 
the portion that was incurved or partially hooded. The surface is 
marked by fine stria? between and parallel to the ribs, but the ob- 
lique, divergent striw, so conspicuous in Sfhenotexthis, are scarcely 
apparent. The midrib has nothing of the double or grooved 
character seen in that of StJienoteutkis and Ommastrephes, the 
divergent ribs are much less numerous, and the whole structure is 
much more thin and flexible and the marginal portions much more 
ill-defined and membranous. 

Architeuthis abundant in 1875 at the Grand JBan/iS. 
From Capt. J. W. Collins, now of the United States Fish Commis- 
sion, I learn that in October, 1875, an unusual number of giant- 
squids were found floating at the surface on the Grand Banks, but 



A. E. Yerrlll — JSTorth American. Cephalopods. 397 

mostly entirely dead, and more or less mutilated by birds and fishes. 
In very few cases they were not quite dead, but entirely^disabled. 
These were seen chiefly between north latitude 44° and 44° 30', and 
between west longitude 49° 30' and 49° 50'. He believes that 
between 25 and 30 specimens were secured by the fleet from Glou- 
cester, Mass., and that as many more were probably obtained by the 
vessels from other places. They were cut iip and used as bait for 
codfish. For this use they are of considerable value to the fishermen. 
Captain Collins was at that time in command of the schooner 
" Howard," which secured five of these giant-squids. These were 
mostly from 10 to 15 feet long, not including the anus, and averaged 
about 18 inches in diameter. The arms were almost always muti- 
lated. The portion that was left was usually -^ to 4 feet long, and at 
the base, about as large as a man's thigh. 

One specimen (No. 25), when cut up, was packed into a large hogs- 
head-tub having a capacity of about 75 gallons, which it filled. This 
tub was known to hold 700 pounds of codfish. The gravity of the 
Architeuthis is probably about the same as that of the fish. This 
would indicate more nearly the actual weight of one of these crea- 
tures than any of the mere estimates that have been made, which are 
usually much too great. Allowing for the parts of the arms that 
had been destroyed, this si^ecimen would probably have weighed 
nearly 1,000 pounds. 

Among the numerous other vessels that were fortunate in securing 
this kind of bait, Captain Collins mentions the following : 

The schooner " Sarah P. Ayer," Captain Oakley, took one or two. 

The " E. R. Nickerson," Captain McDonald, secured one that had 
its arms, and was not entirely dead, so that it was harpooned. Its 
tentacular arms were 36 feet long CNo. 26). 

The schooner " Tragabigzanda," Captain Mallory, secured thi-ee in 
one afternoon. These were 8 to 12 feet long, not including the arms. 

These statements are confirmed by other fisliermen, some of whom 
state that the " big squids " were also common during the same sea- 
son at the "Flemish Cap," a bank situated some distance northeast 
from the Grand Banks. 

The cause of so great a mortality among these great Cephalopods 
can only be conjectured. It may have been due to some disease 
epidemic among them, or to an unusual prevalence of deadly para- 
sites or other enemies. It is worth while, however, to recall the 
fact that these were observed at about the same time, in autunm, 
when most of the specimens have been found cast ashore at New- 



398 A. E. Verrill — North Auierican Cephalopods. 

ibundland in different years. This time may, perhaps, be just subse- 
quent to their season for reproduction, wlien they wonUl be so much 
weakened as to be more easily over|)Owered by parasites, disease, or 
other unfavorable conditions. 

I have heard of no authentic instances* of the occurrence of speci- 
mens of this species since the finding of the small specimen (Xo. 24), 
in April, 1880, [See p. 259,] 

Large Species from Nevi Zealand. 
Architeuthis Mouchezi ? (See p. 243.) 

Mr. T, W, Kirk, in the Transactions of the Wellington Philosoph- 
ical Society, for ()ctol)er, 1879, p. 310, has pul)lished accounts of the 
occurrence of five specimens ol' "giant cuttle-fish" on the coast of 
New Zealand : 

No. 1. The first of these was cast ashore at Waimarania, east 
coast, in September, 1870. Of this the beak was preserved and sent 
to Mr. Kirk by Mr. Meinertzhagen, Avhose account of the occurrence, 
with a rather cnide description and some measurements made by an 
eye-witness, Mr. Kirk has printed. He gives no description of the 
beak, unfortunately. The dimensions given are as follows : Length 
from tip of tail to root of arms, 10 feet 5 inches ; circumference, 6 feet ; 
length of arms, 5 feet 6 inches. " The beast had eight tentacles, as 
thick as a man's leg at the root ; horrid suckers on the inside of them, 
from the size of an ounce bullet to that of a pea at the tip ; two horrid 
goggle eyes; and a powerful beak between the roots of the arms. 
His head appeared to slip in and out of a sheath. Altogether he was 
a most repulsive looking brute." 

It is probable that this specimen had lost its two tentacular arms 
before death, and that it was actually of the same species as the other 
specimens recorded by Mr. Kirk. Mr. Kirk, however, seems to think 
that the above description refers to an Octopod. 

No. 2. "The beak of number 2 was deposited in the Colonial 
Museum by Mr. A. Hamilton. The animal was captni-ed at Cape 
Campbell by Mr. C. ?I. Robson, a member of this society, who very 
kindly furnished me with the following information. Writing on the 
10th of June, 1879, he says: 

* A purely fictitious and sensational account of an imaginary capture of an Archi- 
teuthis has been published in Lippincott's Magazine, for Aug., 1881, p. 124, by Mr. 
Cliarles F. Holder. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 399 

'"In reply to yours of the 12th about the cuttle-fish, I may state 
that while stationed at Cape Campbell I found several specimens of 
large size, all, however, more or less mutilated, except one, the beak 
of which I gave to Mr. Hamilton. It was alive and quite perfect, the 
body being 7 feet long, eight sessile arms 8 feet long, and two ten- 
tacular arms 12 feet long. I am, however, only writing from memory. 
JNIr. Hamilton has the exact measurements, and I remember dis- 
tinctly that the total length was close on 20 feet.' 

"I am sorry to say that Mr. Hamilton has mislaid the notes and 
measurements, but those given above cannot be far out." 

No. 3. The third specimen was examined and measured by Mr. 
Kirk, personally, where it lay on the beach. He made a drawing of 
it, wliich lias not yet been published, to my knowledge. It was found 
on the beach at Lyall Bay, May 23, 1879, by three boys. Mr. Kirk 
states that it had been somewhat mutilated by the natives before he 
saw it, and the pen or bone had been cut across ; but he preserved 
all the pieces of the pen, the beak, tongue, and some of the suckers. 
Most of the suckers had been torn off". 

" The length of body from tip of tail to anterior margin of the 
mantle was 9 feet 2 inches, and 7 feet 3 inches in circumference ; the 
head from anterior margin of mantle to roots of arms, 1 foot 11 
inches; making the total length of the body 11 feet 1 inch. The 
head measured 4 feet in circumference. The sessile arms measured 4 
feet 3 inches in length, and 11 inches in circumference. Each of 
these arms bore thirty-six suckers, arranged in two equal rows (as 
shown by the scars), and measuring from \^ to \ of an inch in diam- 
eter. Every sucker was strengthened by a bony ring armed with 
from forty to sixty sharj:) incurved teeth. The tentacular arms had 
been torn off at the length of 6 feet 2 inches, which was probably less 
than half their original length." 

"The fins were posterior, and were mere lateral expansions of the 
mantle. They did not extend over the back, as in the case with 
Onychoteiithis, &c. Each measured 24 inches in length and 13 
inches in width. 

"The cuttle-bone, when first extracted, measured 6 feet 3 inches in 
length and 1 1 inches in width, but has since shrunk considerably. It 
was broadly lanceplate, with a hollow conical apex \^ inches deep," 

No. 4. "Another specimen, measuring 8 feet in length, was lately 
caught by a fishing party near the Boulder Bank, at Nelson, concern- 
ing which I have only seen a newspaper cutting, and have not been 
able to obtain particulars," 



400 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

No. 5. "A fifth was found by Mr. Moore, near Flat Point, east 
coast, A description was sent to Mr. Beetham, M. H. R., who, I 
believe, intends communicating it to this society." 

From the above descriptions, alone, it is not possible to decide with 
certainty whether these specimens belong to the Architeitthis-groxiY>, 
or whether they are more neai'ly allied to the Onyahoteiithis-grony), like 
Mbroteuthis, for the armature of the tentacular arms is not known. 
The broad-lanceolate form of the pen, with a small conical hood at 
the end, would seem to indicate affinities with Architeuthis, and the 
presence of true suckers, on the sessile arms, and small size of the fins, 
are favorable for that view. Altogether, the descriptions indicate 
that this New Zealand species is related to, and perhaps identical 
with, the one discovered at the Island of St. Paul, and first named by 
M. Velain Architeuthis 3Iouchezi. It is to be hoped that Mr. Kirk 
will soon give detailed descriptions and figures of the portions in his 
possession. 



Plectoteuthis grandis Owen = Architeuthis grandis. 

PlecMeutltis grandis Owen, Descriptions of some new and rare Ceplialopoda, Part 
II.-<Trans. Zool. Soc. London, xi, part 5, p. 156, pi. 34, 35, June, 1881. 

Professor Owen, in the paper quoted, has given a somewhat detailed 
description, with figures, of the large cephalopod arm, long preserved 
in tlie British Museum, and which had previously been pretty fully 
described by Mr. Saville Kent, in 1874, whose description has already 
been quoted by me (see pp. 241, 242). Professor Owen, like Mr. 
Kent, fails to state to which pair of arms the specimen belongs. This 
is a very important omission, for in Arcltiteuthis, as in many other 
genera, the ai-ms belonging to different pairs ditter in form and struct- 
ure. The describers of this arm would doubtless have been able to 
ascertain to which pair it belonged by a direct comparison with the 
arms of Ommastrephes, or any other related form. 

For this arm, Professor Owen endeavors to establish a new genus 
and species [Plectoteuthis grandis). The genus is based mainly on 
the fact that there is a marginal crest along each outer angle, and a 
narrow protective membrane along each side of the sucker-bearing 
face. These peculiarities are precisely those seen in the ventral arms 
of Architeuthis, and have already been described by me in former 
articles, and in this report (see pp. 214, 261, 262), both as found in 
A.Harueyi and A. ptrinceps. Similar membranes or crests are found 



A. E. Verrill — JVorth American Cephalopocls. 401 

on the dorsal arms of Sihenoteuthis j)teropus (see PI. XXXVI, fig. 
V, «) and other related species. 

The suckers on the arm, as described and figured by Professor 
Owen, are like those of Archlteuthis. Therefore, tliere is no ground 
whatever for referring this arm to any other geni(s, and Plectoteuthis 
must, therefore, become a synonym of Architeiithis. 

Whether the arm in qu^estion belongs to a species distinct from 
those already named, I am unable to say. There is, apparently, 
nothing to base specific characters upon except the form of the suckers 
and of their horny rings. But the description of the horny rings is 
not sufficiently precise, nor the figures sufficiently detailed, to affi)rd 
such characters. If the arm is one of the ventral pair, as seems prob- 
able, the suckers as figured by Professor Owen, and especially as 
more fully described by Mi-. Kent, agree very closely, but not per- 
fectly, with those of either of the Newfoundland specimens, for in the 
latter the suckers of the ventral arms are strongly toothed externally, 
but are either entire, or in some cases, only slightly denticulated on 
the inner side. But they also agree well with those of the Architeii- 
this Hartingii, as figured by Harting. Those of the original A. dux 
Steenst., have neither been described nor figured. In Owen's figures 
the large suckers are represented as denticulated pretty evenly all 
around the edge. As this arm cannot, at present, be referred with 
certainty to any of the named species, it may be best to record it as 
Architeuthis grandis, until better known. 

In the same article Professor Owen has given a good figure (pi. 33, 
fig. 2) of the tentacular arm of the Newfoundland specimen (my Nq. 
2) copied from the same photograph described by me (see pp. 182, 
208, 209). To this he applies, doubtless by mistake, the name, Archi- 
teiithis princeps^ without giving any reason for not adopting my 
conclusion that it belongs to A. Harveyi. But he does not, in any 
way, refer to the latter species, although he mentions the specimen 
(my No. 5), or rather the photograph of the specimen, on which that 
species was based. He apparently (on page 162) supposes that both 
photographs and all of Mr. Harvey's measurements refer to the same 

* By a singular mistake, Professor Oweu, on page ] 63, states that this species was 
ix&meA A. princeps 'bj Dr. Packard, in February, 1873. But according to his own 
statement, on page 161, the specimen was not actually obtained till December, 1873, at 
least nine months ajter Dr. Packard's article was printed. In truth, the name princeps 
was first given by me in 1875, to designate a pair of large jaws, as explained on page 
210. Neither this nor any other name appears on the cited page of Dr. Packard's 
article, though he elsewhere referred these Jaws doubtfully to A. ononachus. 



402 A. E. Verrlll — North American Cephalopods. 

specimen, which is by no means the case, as liad been snfficiently 
explained T)y me in several former papers.* 

The brief account given by Professor Owen of the large Cephalo- 
pods desci-ibed by others, includes none additional to those noticed 
by me in this rejiort. On the other hand, he omits those described 
by Harting; those described by Mr. Kirk, from New Zealand; those 
from Alaska : and several otliers. 



Sthenoteuthis Verrill (see pp. 222, 28i;.) 

Xij:)lwteuthis (sub-genus) Owen, op. eit. p. 104, pi. 28, figs. 1, 2, .June, 1881 (;non 
Huxley). 

In the paper referred to above, f Professor Owen has described a 
cephalopod, without locality, under the name of Oiamaslrephes ensi- 
fer, for which he proposes the sub-generic name Xijihoteuthis. His 
species is a typical example of ray genus Sthenoteuthis (1880) and 
appears to be identical, in every respect, with S. pteropus (see p. 228, 
PI. XXXVI, flgs. 5-9, and PI. LIV, figs. 2, 2«), as described by me. 
But Professor Owen fails to mention one of the most characteristic 
features of this group of squids, viz : the connective tubercles and 
smooth suckers on the proximal part of the tentacular club, nor is 
his figure sufficiently detailed to indicate this character, nor even the 
actual arrangement and structure of the other suckers of the club. 
The high median crest and broad marginal web of the third pair of 

*It seems incredible that Professor Owen could have made these mistakes had he 
examined either of my former papers in which these specimens have been described 
in detail, not only from the photographs, but from the preserved specimens. He does, 
however, refer to Part I, of this article, published in 1880. But as he states 
(p. 162) that in it "a brief notice is given of Mr. Harvey's squid" it is fair to 
suppose that the reference is taken at second-hand, for it is not to be supposed that he 
would have considered my description, covering over 20 pages, and accompanied by 
nine plates, as a " hrief notice." None of ray earlier papers are referred to, nor does 
he mention the large species, Moroteuthis rohusta, in his account of the large Cephalo- 
pods hitherto described. 

f Among other species figured and described in this paper, tJiere is a handsome 
species from the China Sea, described as Loligopsis ocelluta, sp. nov. (pp. 1.B9-140, pi. 
26, figs. 3-8 , pi 27, figs. 1, 2). 

This is evidently not a true Loligopsis and belongs, in all probability, to my genus 
Calliteuthis. It agrees very closely, even to the coloration, and the form of the fins 
and pen, with my G. reversa, but differs in having serrate suckers. This species 
should, therefore, be called Calliteuthis ocellata. It is much larger than my specimen, 
but like the latter, had lost the tentacular arms. The genus probably belongs to the 
Chiroteuthidas. 



^1. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



403 



arms are well shown, but these are about equally broad in S. pteropus 
and 8. rnegcqytera, and are also present in all the related species of 
this group. 

Owen's specimen had a total length of 3 feet; length of body, 15 
inches; of head to base of dorsal arms, 3-7; of third pair of arms, 
12; of tentacular arms, 21 ; breadth of caudal fin, 12-6; length of 
their attached bases, 6-6; breadth of body, 5; length of 1st, 2d, 3d, 
4th pairs of arms, 8*9, 11, 12, and 9*6 inches, respectively. The spe- 
cimen is a female. It agrees very closely in size with the Bermuda 
specimen described by me, and its proportions do not difter more 
than is usual with alcoholic specimens of any species, preserved 
under ditferent circumstances, and in alcohol of dilferent strength. 
The original specimen of S. megaptera is considerably larger. 

Ommastrephes illecebrosus v. (See p. 268.) 

This species was taken in many localities, this year, by the U. S. 
Fish Commission, in deep water, otf Martha's Vineyard. Most of the 
living specimens were young, but large ones were often taken from 
the stomachs of bottom-dwelling fishes, in the same region, showing 
conclusively that it regularly inhabits those depths. 



Additional Specimens examined. 



station. 


Locality. 


Fath. 


Date. 

1881. 


Rec'dfrom 


Specimens. 
No. Sex. 




Off Martha's Vineyard. 




U.S.F.C. 




918 


S. i W. eim.f.GajHead. 


45 


.July 16. 




1 1., from flsh. 


919 


65 


5U 






2 1., from Lopliius. 


923 


78i 


96 






'■'> juv. 


924 


83* 


110 


" 




5 juv. 


92.5 


86 


•224 


" 




1 juv. 


939 


S.byE.i E. 98 " 


258 


Aug. 4. 




11. ; 1 juv. 


940 


97 


130 


" 




1 1. ; 1 juv. 


949 


S.W. 79i 


100 


Aug. 23. 




1 1., in Lopholatilus. 


1025 


S.8.W.iW.95 


216 


Sept. 8. 




1 ]., in fish. 


1033 


S.S.E.iB.106 


183 


Sept 14. 




1 1., in Merhicius. 


1038 


S.byE.iE.89i 


146 


Sept. 21. 




1 1. 




Newfoundland. 


Surf'e 


1880. 


Osborn 


3 1. $ ; 10 1. ? . 



Mr. H. L. Osborn, in the i\.merican Naturalist, vol. xv, p. 366, 
May, 1881, has given an account of the habits of this squid, at New- 
foundland, and of the methods of capturing it there, for bait. 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Yol. V. 48 November, 1881. 



404 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

Enoploteuthis Cookii Owen. (See p. 241.) 

Enoploteiiihis Cookii Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, xi, p. 150, pi. 30, figs. 1-3, pi. 

31. figs. 1-4, pi. 32. figs. 1-6, pi. 33, fig. 1 (restoration). June, 1881. 
Seppia unguiculata Molina, 1810 (no description). 
Eno2)loieuthis Molinm D'Ovhignj, Ceph. Acetab., p. 339, 1845-1848. 
? Enoploteuthis Hartingii VerrilJ, this vol., p. 241, pi. 24, figs. 4-4';, 1880. 

Professor Owen has very recently described in detail and has given 
excellent figures of most of the existing parts of this large and 
remarkable cephalopod, which have so long been preserved and have 
so often been referred to, but hitherto have never been scientifically 
described. (See p. 241). It is to be regretted, however, that Professor 
Owen has neither described nor figured the teeth of the radula, in a 
manner to enable it to be used as a systematic character. His state- 
ment in regard to it is only of the most general kind, and shows only 
that there are seven rows of teeth. It is also a matter of surprise 
that he has not compared any of the described portions with the 
corresponding parts of an equally large and very closely allied 
Enoploteuthis carefully described and figured by Ilarting in 1861 
(see p. 241), and to which I have given the well-merited name, 
E. Hartingii. 

It is not improbable that the two forms are really identical, but 
this cannot be ceitainly determined from the figures, because the 
corresponding parts are not always represented in the same positions, 
and it is uncertain whether the corresponding arm is preserved in 
the two cases. 

Harting figures, rather poorly, the teeth of the radula, which 
appear to be very peculiar, if his figure is correct (see my PI. XXIV, 
fig. 46). 

The shape of the mandibles appears to be difi"erent in the two 
species, however, and the large hooks also difter in form. 

Histioteuthis Collinsii Verrill. (pp. 234, 300). 

The teeth of the odontophore, originally described and figured 
(p. 237, PI. XXXVII, fig. 5), were not the most developed of those on 
the same odontophore. On the middle and best developed parts, the 
bases of the central and inner lateral teeth, when seen in a front view, 
are broader than indicated in the former figures, in which they are 
seen nearly in profile. The median tooth has a long, acute, central 
denticle, but no distinct lateral denticles, the broad, short base hav- 
ing the outer angles only slightly prominent, or not at all so; the 
inner lateral teeth are nearly as large, with one similar large denticle, 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 405 

but the broad base is oblique, and the outer border is sloping, with- 
out a prominent angle. 

The pedicels of the larger suckers on the tentacular club are very 
peculiar. They are, when extended, long and remarkably stout, 
their diameter being more than half that of the sucker. They are 
cylindrical, and are capable of being invaginated, toward the sum- 
mit, so that they can be lengthened out or A^ery much shortened by a 
sort of telescopic motion. The upper end is thick, and fits the basal 
part of the broad sucker like a piston. (PI. LV, figs. 6, Qa.) 

Two additional examples of this interesting species have been re- 
ceived. They are not in so good condition as the one originally 
described. The head and arms alone remain, but these are well 
enough preserved to show the characteristic color-marks. The first 
is considerably smaller than the specimen taken by Capt. Collins, 
It was taken fi'om a cod, on the western part of the Grand Bank, 
N. F., by Capt, Johnson and crew, of the schooner ''Augusta John- 
son," (lot 962). Presented to the U, S. Fish Commission, June, 1881. 
The last specimen was taken in 180 fathoms, near the N. E. part of 
George's J^ank, and presented to the U. S. Fish Commission by 
Capt. Chas, Anderson and crew, of the schooner "Alice G. VVonson," 
October, 1881, (lot 980). 

Brachioteuthis, gen. nov. 

Allied to ChirotentJiis. Uififers in having the lateral connective 
cartilages of the siphon simple, long-ovate, and the corresponding 
cartilages of the mantle in the form of simple, linear ridges ; a rhom- 
bic caudal fin ; pen with a simple, linear, anterior portion, suddenlv 
expanding into a much broader, lanceolate, posterior portion, which 
is naturally infolded ; arms slender, the ventral ones not distinctly 
obliquely compressed ; tentacular club without a spoon-like cavity at 
tip. 

The siphon has a valve and dorsal bridle as in Chirotevthis, and 
the suckers, so far as preserved, are similar, but those of the club are 
more numerous, and their pedicels apparently had a less prominent 
bulb below the sucker. 

In addition to the following new type-species, this genus probably 
includes the Chiroteuthis Bonplandii Verany, from the eastern At- 
lantic. 

B. Bonplandii, as figured, has a very similar pen, but the shape 
of the caudal fin is different, and the arms are more nearly equal in 
length. The arms are also represented as having small swellings at 
the tips. Its tentacular arms are not known. 



406 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

Brachioteuthis Beanii, gp. nov. 

Plate LY, figures 3-3&; Plate LYI, figures 2-2a. 
Male : Body rather small, tapering backward to an acute posterior 
end ; dorsal mantle-edge with a broad obtuse angle ; caudal fin large 
in proportion to the body, broad rhomboidal ; outer angles prominent, 
anterior to the middle ; the anterior lobes project forward considera- 
bly beyond the insertions, and are rounded. The form of the fin is 
much like that of Ommastrephss. Head thickened at the bases of the 
arms, not so large in proportion to the body as in C lacertosa. Eyes 
large, eye-lids thin. Siphon large, with two strong dorsal bridles ; 
internal valve broad, rounded, somewhat back from the orifice-; 
connective cartilages long ovate, broadest behind (fig. 2a) ; doi'sal 
cartilage of neck oblong, with a strong median ridge and two deep 
parallel grooves. Lateral cartilages of mantle (fig. 2) are simple linear 
ridges, extending to the edge of the mantle. Arms not very large, 
somewhat rounded, long and slender; the dorsal ones are much 
smaller and shorter than the others; two lateral pairs nearly equal 
in size and length, more than two-thirds the length of the mantle. 
Ventral arms shorter and much more slender than the lateral, more 
than half the length of the mantle ; the ventral arms show but little 
of the compressed, oblique form, so conspicuous in the preceding 
species, and the crest or fold of skin along the outer-ventral angle is 
narrow, thin, and not very conspicuous ; the suckers on the ventral 
arms are in two alternating, not distant, rows, often appearing almost 
as if in one row toward the base, where they become smaller, but are 
of the normal cup-shaped form, with finely denticulate rims and 
slender pedicels; the tips of both ventral arms are much injured, 
but small, normal, long-pediceled suckers can be traced to the tip of 
the left arm ; the right arm is denuded of its skin and suckers at the 
tip. The suckers of the four lateral arms are in two rather close 
rows, larger, oblique, low cup-shaped, attached by slender peciicels, 
which are somewhat swollen just below the suckers; most of them 
have lost their horny rings ; marginal membranes rudimentary. Web 
between the arms, rudimentary. Tentacular arms very long and 
slender, in alcohol about twice the length of the mantle; a few 
scattered, sessile suckers are found along the whole length of the 
arms; tentacular club well-developed, long-ovate, oblique, with a 
thick wrist and flat or concave sucker-bearing face; suckers small 
and very numerous, crowdedly arranged in many rows (probably 
sixteen rows or more), some of the middle ones larger than the rest; 



A. E. Verrill — JVorth American Cephalopods. 407 

suckers not well preserved, but all appear to have been alike in form; 
pedicels long and slender, Avith a smooth and not very large swelling 
below the base of the sticker; the suckers have lost their horny rims, 
but the sheaths are shaped much like those of 0. lacertosa, the distal 
portion being hood-shaped, with a lateral opening, while the basal part 
is swollen laterally. The tip of the club is simple, without any such 
spoon-shaped appendage as is found in the preceding species. Buccal 
membrane large, with a free thin edge, which scarcely forms ano-les. 

Pen (PI. LV, fig. 3a) has a narrow, linear anterior portion, consist- 
ing of more than halt' its length, decreasing in width backward, then 
suddenly expanding into the posterior portion, which is broad and 
thin, and infolded, so as to form a large, compressed posterior cavity; 
the anterior portion is concave beneath, with no midrib, the edges 
excnrved and slightly thickened; when spread out and flattened the 
posterior portion has a lanceolate form, rather abruptly widenino- 
anteriorly and very gradually tapering backward, with a double 
midrib, and some delicate lines ])arallel to it, while the lateral expan- 
sions are very thin and delicate. Color of body mostly destroyed, in 
the typical specimens, but small, light purplish brown chromato- 
phores are uniforndy scattered over the parts best preserved ; this 
is also the case on the head, siphon, and outer surfaces of the arms, 
where the skin is well preserved; scattered spots also occur on the 
inner surfaces, between the suckers. 

A larger specimen ^station 994), which has lost its head and pen, 
and, therefore, cannot be positively identified, has a much darker 
color. It is dark purplish brown over the whole body. 

The male has the mantle 62""" long ; length of caudal fin, 31 ; 
its breadth, 36 ; end of tail to base of arms, 85 ; length of dorsal 
arms, 26 ; of second pair, 48 ; of third pair, 45 + (tips gone) ; of fourth 
pair, 35 ; of tentacular arms, 118; of sucker-bearing portion of club, 
16; breadth of tentacular arms, 2; of club, 4; of lateral arms, at 
base, 3*5 ; of ventral arms, 3 ; diameter of eye-ball, 8 ; of the largest 
suckers of lateral arms, 1*2; length of pen, 62 ; of anterior, narrow 
portion, 38 ; its breadth anteriorly, where widest, 2 ; where narrow- 
est, 1*25 ; length of posterior portion, 24 ; its bi-eadth, 8'""". 

The teeth of the odontophore (PI. LV, fig. 3b) form seven rows ; 
the median ones have a large, acute central, and two small, lateral 
denticles ; the inner lateral teeth have a large, acute, inner denticle 
and a very small outer one; the next to the outer lateral teeth ai-e 
somewhat stouter than the outermost, which are slender, strongly 
curved, and very acute ; no marginal plates were observable. 



408 A. E. Verrill— North American Cephalopods. 

The supposed female has lost the tail, but the arms are in better 
condition than those of the male; it differs from the male in having 
distinctly smaller suckers on the lateral arms. Length of dorsal arms, 
•27"'"' ; of second pair, 44; of third pair, 46 ; of fourth pair, 37 ; of 
tentacular arras, 120; of club, 16""". 

Two typical specimens wei*e obtained off Martlia's Vineyard, at 
stations 1031 and 1033, in 255 and 183 fathoms; one of doubtful 
identity, at 994, in 368 fathoms, by the U. S. Fish Commission, in 
1881. All three were from fish-stomachs. 

I take pleasure in dedicating this interesting species to Dr. T. H. 
Bean, the ichthyologist, who took charge of the fishes on the " P^ish 
Hawk," this season. 

Chiroteuthis lacertosa, sp. nov. (See p. 299.) 

Chiroteuthis Bonplandii f, p. 299 {non Verany.) 

Plate LVI, pigukes 1-1/. 

A nearly complete male specimen of a Chiroteuf/ris, lacking only 
the tentacular ai-ms and the distal portion of the left ventral arm, 
was received after the preceding pages were put in type. The 
stiimps of the tentacular arms, remaining, bear the same kind of un- 
armed sessile suckers as did the arm described on p. 299, and figured 
on pi. 47, figs, ^-Ih. It appears to be a new species, and is very 
distinct from 0. Bonplandii. Tlie sessile arms are very large in 
proportion to the head and body, and the ventral arms are much 
laro-er than any of the others. The body is small, obconic, tajjering 
rapidly backward to the origin of the caudal fin, where it becomes 
very small, and continues to taper to the very slender posterior end. 
The median dorsal angle of the mantle-edge projects fai- forward, as 
a broad angular lobe; lateral angles rounded and not prominent. 
Caudal fin relatively large, as compared with the body, broad-ovate 
in outline, widest near the middle, tapering backward to an acumin- 
ate, slender tip; very broadly rounded laterally, narrowing abruptly 
anteriorly; the anterior lobes are small, rounded, and project only 
sliohtly forward beyond the insertions. Siphon large, with a well- 
formed valve, far back from the orifice ; dorsal bridles rudimentary. 
Connective cartilages on the base of the siphon, broad-ovate, ear-shaped, 
with two rounded prominent lobes projecting into its concavity, one 
])osterior, the other ventral, so that the pit is three-cornered (fig, \b). 
The corresponding connective cartilages of the mantle consist of 
two Yjits, separated by a prominent, triangular tubercle (fig. Ic), 
Head large, in proportion to the body, tapering backward from the 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 409 

bases of the arras. Eyes large; lids thin and simple, without a dis- 
tinct lachrymal sinus. Behind and below each eye there is a long 
(4"""), slender, clavate, soft papilla (fig. ly), probably olfactory in 
function. 

The sessile arms are large and, except the ventral, unusually round- 
ed ; the inner sucker-bearing faces are much less differentiated than 
usual, scarcely differing from the other sides in color, and bordered by 
only a slight or rudimentary membrane on each side ; the rounded 
prominences from which the sucker-pedicels arise are also colored and 
not much raised. The dorsal arms are rather long and tapering, but 
much shorter and smaller than the others, slightly compressed and 
with a slight median crest distally. The next pair are similar in 
form and structure, but considerably longer and larger. The thii'd 
pair are much longer and larger, with the outer angles well rounded, 
and a strong median crest extends nearly to the base, but is wider 
distally, where the arms are strongly compressed. The ventral arms 
are considerably longer and stouter than the third pair, and very 
different from all the others in form ; they are strongly compressed 
in the direction parallel with the median plane of the head, and have 
the lower and outer angles well rounded, and the sucker-bearing face 
wide and scarcely differentiated from the lateral laces ; but on the 
superior lateral side there is a wide and thick crest running the 
whole length of the arms, giving them a strongly and obliquely com- 
pressed appearance. The suckers on the ventral arms are smallei-, 
fewer, and more distant than on any of the others; those at the bases 
are largest and three or four stand nearly in a single row ; farther out, 
along the middle of the arm, they are distantly arranged in tAvo rows 
and rapidly become small. The left ventral arm shows no signs of 
being hectocotylized ; the right one, however, has lost half its length 
by mutilation. On all the other arms the suckers are regularly and 
much more closelv arranoed in two rows, and decrease more sradu- 
ally in size from near the base to the tips. 

The suckers on all the arms are similar in form ; they are rather 
deep, narrowed at the rim, slightly constricted above the middle, 
and swollen below, and very oblique at the base; the pedicels are 
slender and nearly laterally attached ; the horny rims are very deep 
and oblique, and strongly denticulated on the outer or higher side, 
but on all the arms they are smooth on the inner side; the median, 
outer denticles are long, slender, close together; laterally they become 
shorter, broader, acute-triangular and curved forward. On the larger 
suckers the outer teeth are obtuse, but on the distal ones they becom.e 



410 A. E. Verrill — N'orth American Cephalopods. 

more slender and acute. The margins of the suckers are surrounded 
with small, elongated scales. (PI. LVI, figs. \d^ le.) 

The buccal membrane is thin and much produced, with the angles 
little prominent ; it is attached to the arms by eight thin, but wide, 
bridles, the two superior ones united together near their origin. 
The web between the arms is rudimentary but distinct. The pen (fig. 
\d) is very unlike that of (J. Veranyi, as figured and described by 
D'Orbigny. It has a long, Tiarrow shaft of nearly uniform width, and 
a long posterior portion, a little wider than the shaft, corresponding in 
length to that of the caudal fin ; at the commencement, this portion 
expands into narrrow, free, incurved margins, but these unite quickly 
so as to form a long, narrow, angular, tubular portion, tapering to a 
very slender tip ; this portion {la") has a dorsal keel, with a groove 
each side of it, two dorsal angles and a ventral angle along each side ; 
the narrow shaft has a dorsal keel, with the sides bent down abruptly, 
nearly at right-angles, and a little incurved, so as to produce a 
squarish keel above, with a deep angular groove below, while the very 
narrow margins bend outward abruptly (la') ; the shaft increases very 
slightly in width, to near the subacute anterior end, but preserves the 
same form, and there is no distinct dilation of the margin anteriorly, 
such as D'Orbigny figures in the pen of C. Veranyi, nor does the 
posterior portion resemble his figure, though if split open and flat- 
tened out, it would resemble it more nearly. 

This specimen is an adult male, in the breeding condition, for its 
spermatophore-sac is much distended with spermatophores. The 
color is much like that of C. Veranyi. It is eveiywhere thickly 
specked with small, purplish brown chromatophores, except on the 
buccal membrane and the bases of the tentacular arms, where there 
are but few ; the head around the eyes and the end of the siphon are 
darker ; a row of very distinct, rather large, round, dark purple spots 
runs along the inner surface of the ventral arms, just outside of, and 
alternating with, the upper row of suckers, which they about equal 
in size. 

Total length, to end of ventral arms, 383""" ; to end of third pair, 
366"""; to end of dorsal arms, 298"""; tail to dorsal mantle edge, 
125"""; to base of dorsal arms, 178"""; length of dorsal arms, 120'"™; 
of second pair, 150""" ; of third pair, 188"'"' ; of ventral, 205""" ; length 
of caudal fin, 60'"'"; its greatest breadth, 41'""'; breadth of head at 
eyes, 20'""^ ; of dorsal arms, Y'"'" ; of third pair, 10'"'" ; of ventral arms, 
13""" ; of bases of tentacular arms, 3'"'" ; diameter of largest suckers 
of lateral arms, 2-25'"'". 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 411 

Brown's Bank, off' Nova Scotia, taken from the stomach of a cod 
(lot 95G). Presented to the U. S. Fish Commission by Capt. Wm. 
Dempsy and crew, of the schooner " Clara F. Friend," June, 1881. 

The internal anatomy is somewhat peculiar in several respects, but 
will not be fully described in this place. 

The gills are short and broad, with very long- lamellae. The re- 
productive organs occupy a large part of the visceral cavity. The 
testicle is a large, thick, broad-ovate organ, with the two sides folded 
together around and closely united to the large coecal lobe of the 
stomach. The testicle does not extend back beyond the origin of the 
caudal fin, the visceral cavity being very nari'ow in that region. 
The prostate gland and vesiculae seminales are large and swollen, and 
the spermatophore-sac is also large. The efferent duct is large and 
long, extending far forward ; it expands at the end into a spade-like 
form, with an acute tip ; its orifice is oblique ear-sh;iped, situated on 
one side, near the end, and is protected by a lobe or flap. The stom- 
ach is saccular and the large coecal lobe is not very long. The liver 
is thick. The posterior aorta goes far back, nearly to the origin of 
the fin, before dividing, for the median septum of the branchial cavity 
is placed far back. The ink-sac has the ordinary pyriform shape. 

A smaller, female specimen, probably belonging to this species, was 
taken by Captain Z. L. Tanner, on the "Fish Hawk," October 10, off 
Delaware Bay, in 435 fathoms, station 1048. 

This specimen agrees nearly with the type specimen, described 
above, in the form and proportions of the body, head, arms, caudal 
fin, pen, etc., and in the structure and denticulation of the suckers. 
The caudal fin is slightly broader in proportion, while the suckers are 
deeper and relatively smaller, especially those on the ventral arms, 
which are decidedly smaller than those on the lateral ones. They 
are finely and sharply denticulated on the outer edge, as in the type. 

The color is, however, quite different, for in this example the skin 
and flesh are translucent and beautifully specked with regular, round, 
often rather large, not crowded, dark brownish red chromato- 
phores ; the larger of these, especially on the under side of the fin 
and body, are ocellated ; on the head and arms the chromatophores 
become smaller and more crowded, more nearly as in the type. The 
row of large dark purple spots, along the ventral arms, are, in this 
example, decidedly raised and wart-like. One of the tentacular arms 
is perfect. These are very long and slender, and bear, along their 
whole length, relatively large, rounded, wart-like, dark purple, sessile 
suckers, having a small central pit. These suckers are about two- 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 49 Decembee, 1881. 



412 A. E. Veri'lll — North American Cephalopods. 

thirds as broad as the diameter of the arm, and from close to the 
base of the arm to the distal fourth they are separated by spaces 
mostly equal to about twice their diameter; distally they are less 
numerous. The tentacular club is well developed, with a broad 
marginal membrane along each side, having scalloped or notched 
edges. The club terminates in an ovate, subacute, dark purple, 
hollow organ, with its opening on the outer side of the arm. The 
suckers (Plate LV, fig. 5) are regularly arranged in four rows. Tlie 
stalk is long, with a dark purple, fluted summit, surmounted by a 
very slender pedicel bearing the sucker, which is hooded, with a 
lateral opening ; the horny ring bears several slender, sharp teeth on 
the outer side, the central one being much the longest ;* the soft rim 
of the sucker is covered with many rows of small scales, the inner 
ones with acute tips. The lateral suckers do not alternate with the 
median, but the two arise close together, opposite each other, and in 
line with the teeth on the edge of the marginal membrane. The 
inner surface of the club is specked with brown chromatophores, and 
the marginal membranes are crossed by brown lines, corresponding 
to the notches in their edges. 

Total length, to end of ventral arms, 194"""; to end of third pair, 
150; to end of dorsal arms, 127; tail to dorsal mantle edge, 59; to 
base of dorsal arms, 86 ; length of dorsal arms, 41 ; of second pair, 56 ; 
of third pair, 69 ; of ventral, 110 ; of tentacular arms, 180 ; of club, 
1 7 ; breadth of club, 5 ; length of caudal fin, 27 ; its greatest breadth, 
24 ; of dorsal arms, 4 ; of third pair, 5 ; of ventral arms, 8 ; of bases 
of tentacular arms, 1'5 ; diameter of largest suckers of lateral arms, 1. 

This species differs widely from 0. Bonidandii in the sessile ai-ms, 
etc. It is much more nearly related to (J. Veranyl, from which it 
differs decidedly in the pen ; in the suckers ; and in the caudal fin, if 
these parts are correctly described and figured, for the latter. 

Desmoteuthis tenera, sp. nov. 

Plate LV, figures 2-2d Plate LVI, figure 3. 
Two small, but perfect, specimens of this species were taken in the 
"trawl-wings"f this season, at station 952, in 388 fathoms. 

* The arm, figured on PI. XLVII, figs. l-\h, does not agree with this, and may- 
belong to a diftereiit species ; but the difference in its suckers may be due to injury. 

f The "trawl-wings," which were first invented and used by the U. S. Fish Com- 
mission, this summer, consist of fine nets attached to a support extending out from 
each end of the trawl-beam. When in use they are about two feet above tiie sea-bot- 
tom. They are provided with an interior funnel-shaped net to prevent the escape of 
animals captured. They have been of great value to us for capturing, and retaining in 



A. E. Verrill — North Americayi Cephalopods. 413 

The specimens are both males, but sliow no positive evidence of 
hectocotylization. The body is long, somewhat fusiform, slightly 
smaller in advance of the middle. The tissues are exceedingly thin, 
delicate, pale, and translucent, so that the pen and other organs can 
be seen through the mantle. Anteriorly the edge of the mantle is 
attached to the head, medially, by a muscular commissure, and there 
is ??o free edge (such as D'Orbigny figures in T. pavo) at the narrow 
middle portion of this band. This commissure is broader within the 
mantle, and there is another large, oblique, muscular commissure, ex- 
tending forward to the edge of the mantle, on each side, extensively 
uniting the inner surface of the mantle to the sides of the siphon. 
These commissures leave only a rather narroAV opening to the gill- 
cavity, on each side, and one small ventral one, and the interior ven- 
tral cavity is partitioned off from the lateral ones. 

The siphon is large, projecting forward between the lower sides of 
the large eyes; it has no valve in the ordinary place, but toward the 
base, on the dorsal side, there are two erect, roimded, ear-like flaps, 
each with a small papilla (?''), and a rounded, valve-like, raised median 
fold and a central papilla {i) in front of them. (PI. LV, fig. 2d.) 

The caudal fin is comparatively small, narrow-ovate, tapering to a 
short, blunt posterior end, and with the anterior lobes narrowed and 
scarcely projecting beyond the insertions. The eyes are very laro-e 
and prominent, occupying the whole of the sides of the head, wide 
apart dorsally, but nearly in contact beneath ; eye-lids thin, entire. 

Arms rounded, rather slender, tapering to slender tips; those of the 
third pair are much the longest, and like the second pair, bear along 
the distal half suckers much larger than the proximal ones; tips short, 
with few small suckers. The dorsal and ventral arms are about equal, 
and not much more than half as long as the third pair; they bear 
smaller suckers, in two rows, regularly decreasing distally. The sec- 
ond pair is intermediate in length between the 1st and 3d pairs, with 
two rows of larger suckers on the outer half, suddenly decreasing dis- 
tally, with minute ones close to the tip. The large suckers (fig. 2b, c) 
on the second and third pairs of arms are much larger than the others, 

excellent condition, many kinds of free-swimming deep-sea animals, not otherwise 
obtainable, or if taken in the trawl, crushed by the great masses of fishes, echinoderms. 
actiniae, etc., usually taken in every haul, in these waters. 

Among the things captured iu the "trawl-wings" are not only several cephaloDods 
(including Alloposus, Lestoteuthis, Bossia), but CymbuUa calceolus and other Pteropods • 
vast numbers of Sagitta, one of them bright orange-colored; numerous species of 
Copepod Crustacea, some of them of great size ; Schizopods ; Salpse ; Acalephs, in- 
cluding one very remarkable new form of Siphonophora, etc. 



414 A. E. Verrill — JVbrfh American Cephalopods. 

but similar in form, deep cup-shaped, convex in the middle, obliquely 
attached, with a smooth horny rim, except on the distal ones, which 
have blunt denticles externally. There are about sixteen of these 
suckers on each of the lateral arms, biit eight or ten are decidedly 
larger than the rest. The large suckers commence nearly at the mid- 
dle of the arms and extend to very near the tips. The suckers on all 
the arms are deep, urceolate, with somewhat contracted apertures ; 
they mostly have the horny rim entire ; the distal ones on the ventral 
arms are finely denticulated. The tliird pair of arms have a thin 
median carina on the outer side, along the distal thii-d. 

All the arms have a wide marginal or protective membrane along the 
inner edges, outside the suckers ; these membranes are strengthened 
by transvere thickened, muscular processes, opposite each sucker; be- 
tween these the membrane recedes so that the edge is scolloped. The 
ventral arms have also a membrane along the outer, ventral angle. 
I am unable to detect any positive signs of hectocotylization, either 
in the dorsal or ventral arms. Perhaps the presence of the very large 
suckers on the lateral arms may be a sexual character, but if so, they 
are symmetrical on the two sides. 

The tentacular arms (PI. LVl, fig. 3) taper from the thickened base, 
and in our specimens equal in size, and are not much longer than, those 
of the third pair ; club well developed, rather broader than the rest of 
the arm, with a dorsal keel and wide, marginal, protective membranes ; 
the suckers are arranged in four regular rows ; the larger suckers are 
about equal in size to the larger ones of the dorsal arms ; of these 
there are eight or nine in each row, tlie marginal ones are scarcely 
smaller than the median ones and similar in shape, but more oblique; 
all these suckers are cup-shaped, obliquely attached, with long pedi- 
cels; the marginal ring is denticulated all around, the teeth on the 
outer or higher side being slender, sharp and incurved ; those on the 
inner side minute. The distal part of the club is short, and covered 
with four rows of small suckers, similar to the larger ones in shape 
and armature ; at the tip is a small group of minute suckers, appar- 
ently unarmed. At the proximal end of the club there is a group of 
small denticulated suckers; and four irregular rows of minute, con- 
nective suckers, attached by short pedicels, extend along the inner 
surface of the arm to the middle or beyond ; these are interspersed 
with minute tubercles, more distinct distally, near the club. The 
outer buccal membrane is narrow, without distinct angles. 

The pen is very thin, delicate, pale yellow; the anterior portion is 
very narrow and slender; the posterior third, commencing opposite the 



A. JEJ. Verrlll — North American Cephalopods. 415 

origin of the fins, is lanceolate, with two faint, close ribs along the 
middle, and less distinct parallel lines each side of these ; the tip is 
an acute hollow cone, about lO'"'" long. 

Color of mantle, pale yellowish white, translucent, with scattered, 
conspicuous, round, or more or less elliptical, purplish brown spots, 2 
to 3""" in diameter, and 5 to 10""" apart. P^yes dark purplish or 
chocolate-brown ; head, siphon, and outer surfaces of arms thinlv 
specked with purplish brown chromatophores. 

The length of the lai-gest specimen is 163""", from end of tail to tip 
of 3d pair of arms; length of mantle, dorsally, 116'"™; mantle to 
base of dorsal arms, H"'"' ; diameter of eyes, lY'^m^ breadth of head 
across eyes, 30""" ; breadth of body, 26""" ; length of caudal fin, 45""" ; 
its breadth, 28"""; length of dorsal arms, 20"""; of 2d pair, 25"""; of 
3d pair, 32""" ; of 4th pair, 20™"' ; of tentacular arms, 35""" ; of club, 
11"""; breadth of lateral arms, at base, 3.5"""; diameter of largest 
suckers, 2'5""". 

The teeth of the odontophore (PI. LV, fig. 2a) form seven I'OAVS, 
as usual ; the median teeth have a very large and long median den- 
ticle and a small one at each lateral angle; the inner lateral teeth 
have a large inner denticle and a very small outer one; the two outer 
rows are rather stout; there is also a marginal row of small, more or 
less elliptical plates, with their outlines rather indefinite. 

OiF Martha's Vineyard, 87^ miles from Gay Head, station 952, in 
388 fathoms. U. S. Fish Commission, Aug. 4, 1881. 

This species resembles Taonius pavo (for which I at first mistook 
it) in form, but is very diiFerent in color and other characters. The 
suckers, which are remarkably flat in T. pavo, and strongly serrate, 
are in this very deep, and the edge of the ring is generally entire. 
The pen is also diflferent. 

Notes on the visceral anatomy. 

Anatomically, this species closely resembles Desmoteuthis hyper- 
horea. (See PI. XXXIX, fig. 1.) It has a similar short, thick, com- 
pressed, ovate liver, with the intestine in a groove along its ventral 
edge, and the small ink-sac imbedded in its antero-ventral surface. 
The gills are laterally placed, short, with long lamellae. The heart 
is small, irregularly tubular, oblique, with four angles or lobes where 
joined by the principal vessels. The eiferent vessels from the gills 
are long and conspicuous, because the bases of the gills are distant 
from the heart. The alimentary tract consists of a short, narrow 
rectum, attached to the liver, and ending in a bilabiate aperture. 



416 A. E. Verrill — Worth American Cephalopods. 

guarded by two slender papillae; of a long, rather wide, tubular por- 
tion, extending back to the base of the caudal fin, and covered, along 
the ventral side, with lateral rows of clusters of small follicular 
glands, which, near the liver, diverge into two, separate, large, lateral 
clusters ; posteriorly, where the rows of follicles cease, there is a small, 
firm, bean-shaped, glandular organ, lamellose within (? a gizzard) ; this 
is followed by a long tubular, or fusiform, more or less saccular stomach 
and ciiecal appendage, running back nearly to the end of the body ; a 
constriction at the origin of the caBcal appendage. The testicle 
is a rather small, slender, lanceolate organ, attached laterally, for its 
whole length, to the side of the caecal appendage. The prostate 
gland and vesiciiht; seminales have their usual position, at the base 
of the left gill, but they are small, and probably not fully developed; 
the efferent duct extends over and a short distance beyond the base 
of the gill, and is slender and pointed. The renal organs are very 
different from those of the common squids [Loligo and Oinrnastre- 
phes). The posterior part of the anterior vena-cava becomes glandu- 
lar in front of the heart ; there it parts, sending a long, smooth vein 
to the base of each gill; there, each of these veins expands into an 
ovate renal organ, before joining the branchial auricles. 

Family SEPIOLID^E (See p. 367.) 
During the explorations made by the " Fish Hawk," the present 
season, we were fortunate in obtaining additional specimens, includ- 
ing both sexes, of the very interesting and beautiful species described 
by me in 1878, under the name of Seploki leucoptera. These speci- 
mens have given me an opportunity to make dissections, which I had 
not done with the few specimens previously known. These studies 
show that it has no pen ; that the presence of the remarkably 
enlaro-ed suckers of the second pair of arms is not confined to the 
male ; and that this species is the type of a very distinct genus, espe- 
cially remarkable for being the only known genus, among Myopsidm^ 
that has round pupils and the eye-lids free all around. In fact, it 
shows quite conclusively that this division of the Decacera into two 
groups, based on the presence or absence of free eye-lids, is purely 
artificial and of little or no systematic value. Therefore the char- 
acters attributed to the family, SeplolidcB, must be modified to a con- 
siderable extent, to include this genus. 

In its internal anatomy this genus differs but little from Sepiola^ 
Heteroteuthis and JRossia, notwithstanding its remarkable divergence 
in respect to the eyes and pen. Other genera of Sepiola-shaped 



A. E. Verrill — N'orth American Cephalopods. 41*7 

cephalopods agree with this in lacking a pen. Of such genera, 
Professor Steenstnip has recently [Vidensk. Selsk. Skr., 6 R., nat. 
math. Afd., i, 3, 1881, p. 213] described two: Idiosepius and Sepiada- 
rluin, both of which he associates with the Sepidse, because the ventral 
arms are hectocotylized. One of these {Idiosepius) has the mantle 
free dorsally, as in JRossia, but with ovate connective cartilages on 
the sides ; the other has a dorsal commissure, as in Sepiola, and 
lateral commissures, much as in Taonius. To me, these seem more 
nearly allied to Loligo than co Sepia. In addition to these, I have 
to add another genus,* from the Bay of Yeddo, Japan. Of this 
genus I have two species, collected by Prof E. S. Morse. 

Stoloteuthis VeniU, gen. nov. 
Type, Sepiola leucopkra Verrill. (See p. 347.) 

Body short and thick, well-rounded. Head large, united to mantle 
by a broad dorsal commissure. Eyes large ; pupils round ; eye-lids 
free all around. No pen. Mantle thick, extending farther forward 



* Inioteuthis, gen. nov. Body, lateral fins, and dorsal commissure of the 
mantle as in Sepiola ; lateral connective cartilages of the siphon, oblong-elliptical, with 
the groove open behind, fitting a linear ridge on each side of the mantle. Eye-lids 
free below, adherent above. Pen absent. Arms webbed only slightly, at base ; 
suckers, both on sessile arms and tentacles, as in Bossia. Left dorsal arm hectocoty- 
lized somewhat as in Sejnola Rondeleii (see description by Steenstrup), but more 
extensively, with a large, prominent, fleshy, concave, ear-like structure, near the base, 
extending across the inner surface of the arm, and replacing both i-ows of suckers, 
their pedicels becoming confluent with the marginal membrane. 

The outer side of this organ is divided by a median notch into two lobes ; the distal 
one enclosing a large papilla, apparently formed of two confluent and modified sucker- 
pedicels. 

Inioteuthis Japonica V. This small species has the suckers in two rows on all the 
arms. It appears to be the Sepiola Japonica D'Orbigny. The suckers of all the arms, 
but especially those of the dorsal and npper lateral arms, are much larger in the male 
than in the female. Tentacular club narrow, with small suckers, in about eight rows. 
The fins are small, nearly semicircular. 

Inioteuthis Morsei V., sp. nov. This is easily distinguished from the preceding by 
the presence of four crowded rows of suckers on all the arms ; the suckers are attached 
by slender pedicels, which arise from the top of prominent, thickened, basal stems. 
The tentacular clubs are u ell-developed, with exceedingly numerous, very minute 
suckers, in more than sixteen rows. Fins large, situated in advance of the middle of 
the body. Dorsal and ventral arms about equal; two lateral pairs longer, the third 
pair slightly longer than the second. Mantle edge, beneath, with a large emargina- 
tion ; dorsal commissure broad. 

No males of this species are in the collection ; therefore I refer it to this genus 
provisionall}'. It has no pen. 




V.tBRARVJ5 






418 A. E. Vemll — North Anierican Cephalopods. 

beneath than laterally. Fins large, lateral. Siphon witli an internal 
valve, in both sexes; connective cartilages oblong, with a central 
groove, fitting a linear ridge, on each side of the mantle; these do 
not extend to the edge of the mantle. Arms webbed for more than 
half their length, except between the ventral arms ; second ])air, in 
the male, and some females, with two or three much enlarged suckers 
near the middle. The suckei's of all the arms are relatively larger in 
the male than in the female ; dorsal arms of the male alike ; their 
basal suckers are larger and more crowded than in the female ; no 
other evidence of hectocotylization could be found. 

Stoloteuthis leucoptera Veniii. 

Sepiola leucoptera Verrill. (See p. 347.) 

The largest specimen hitherto observed is an adult male, from 
station 947, in 312 fathoms. This differs but very little from the 
smaller male already described and figured (p. 348, PI. XXXI, fig. 5), 
but it has, on the tips of both ventral arms, four rows of small 
suckers, w^hile all the others, of both sexes, have but two rows, even 
to the extreme tips. The suckers on all the arms of this specimen 
are decidedly larger in proportion than on the females of nearly 
equal size, and the group of larger suckers on the second pair of arms 
is represented by one very large one, on each arm. More than half 
the female specimens also have the corresponding suckers much 
enlarged, but perhaps not so much so as the males. The large males 
appear to show some evidence of hectocotylization, in having the 
suckers near the base of both dorsal arms larger and more crowded 
than they are in the I'emales, and the portions of the web bordering 
these arms appear to be somewhat thickened or swollen, a feature not 
present in the females. But I could detect no difference in the struc- 
ture of the two doisal arms, nor in the two ventrals. The tentacular 
arms are much swollen at base, especially the right one, while the 
club is narrower than the average width of the arm ; just at the base 
of the club, along the upper edge of the ' wrist' there is a prominent 
free lobe or crest. 

In alcohol, the integument appears very thick and rather soft. In 
life there appears to be a thick, gelatinous, transparent layer, outside 
the stratum containing the chromatophores. 

The large male described above, in alcohol, is 40""" long, from end 
of body to tip of lateral arms ; breadth of body, 22 ; breadth of head, 
20 ; breadth across extended fins, 38 ; length of lateral arms, from 
beak, 15'"'". 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



419 



Stoloteuthis leucoptera. — Additional specimens examined. 



Station. 



947 
952 
998 
999 
1026 



Locality. 



Off Martha's Vineyard 



Fathom 


When collected. 


Received from. 


Specimens. 
No. Sex. 


312 


Aug. 9, 1881 


U S. F. 0. 


1 1. (5 : 1 j. 


388 


" 24, 1881 




11.? 


302 


Sept. 8, 1881 


.1 


2 2 


266 


a a 


" 


IS 


182 


i: 11 


11 


3 J- 



RoSSia SUblevis VerrOl. (See p. 354.) 

This species was dredged by the IT. S. Fish Coiumission, in con- 
siderable numbers, during the season of 1881, off Martha's Vineyard, 
in 153 to 458 fathoms. The eggs were taken in August and Septem- 
ber, containing large embi'yos. These eggs were laid in the oscules 
of sponges, and are scarcely distinguishable fiotn those of R. Hyatti. 

Rossia suhlevis. — Additioiial specimens. 



Locality. 



924 

925 

939 

943 

945 

946 

947 

951 

952 

997 

1025 

1026 

1028 

1029 

1032 

1033 

1045 



Off Martha's Vineyard. 

S. \ W. 83i m. from Gay Head,. 

S. I W. 86 m. from Gay" Head, 

S. bv E. I E. 98 m. from Gay Head, ... 

S.S.W. 83 m. from Gay Head, 

S. by W. f W. 84i m. from Gay Head, . 
S. by W. I W. 87| m from Gay Head, . 
S. by W. f W. 89 m. from Gay Head,.. 

S. 85 m. from Gay Head, . 

S. I E. 87* m. from Gay Head, 

SS.W. i W. inSi m. from Gay Head,._ 

S.S.W. i W. 95 m. from Gav Head, 

S.S.W. I W. 93* m. from Gay Head,... 
S.S.E. f E. 108| m. from Gay Head, ... 
S.S.E. f E. 109* m. from Gay Head, ... 

S.S.E. ^ E. 107 m. from Gay Head, 

S.S.E. I E. 106 m. from Gay Head, 



1881 
July 16 



Aug. 



160 

224 

258 

153 

202 

241 

312 

219 

388 

335lSept. 8 

216! " 

182 

410 

458 

208 

183 



iOff Delaware Bay, I 31i 



•^3 



14 



Oct. 10 



Kec'd from. 



U. S. F. C. 



Specimens. 
No. Sex. 



?:eo 

i 



4$ 
3? 

2$ 



11. 
21. 
19: 

1 

11.5: 

25 

6 

5(5 

2$ 

1 5 

3? 

22 

1 1. 3 

Ij. 
5 

l]-: eggs. 
3 1. 5 : 1 j. 



Heteroteuthis tenera A'erriii. (See p. 357.) 

During the dredging season of 1881, this species was again taken 
in many localities, off Martha's Vineyard, in 45 to 182 fathoms. 

The eggs of this species, containing, in some instances, embryos 
so far developed as to permit specific determination, have been taken 
in many localities, in 65 to 130 fathoms, by the U. S. Fish Commis- 
sion, in Augnst and September, associated with the adults. These 
eggs were particularly abundant at stations 865-867, 872, 873, 874, 
in 1880; and at stations 922, 940, 949, in 1881. Some of those taken 
in August are nearly ready to hatch, while others, taken as late as 
September, are freshly laid. The eggs are directly and firmly 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 50 December, 1881. 



420 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 



attached to the surface of various objects, such as dead shells (of 
Pecten, etc.), annelid tubes, hydroids, fragments of Echini, ascid- 
ians, etc. They are placed near together, or side by side, so as to 
form larger or smaller groups. They are pearly white, about 3'""' 
in diameter, nearly round, except that the attached side is somewhat 
flattened, and the upper surface has a small, conical process in the 
middle. 

Heteroteuthis tenera. — Additional specimens. 



918 

919 

920 

921 

922 

940 

944 

949 

950 

1026 

1027 

1038 

1043 



Locality. 



Off Alartha's Vineyard. 

S. i- W. 61 m. from Gay Head, 

S. + "W. 65 m. from Gay Head, 

S. i W. 68| m. from Gay Head, 

S. -J W. 73 m. from Gay Head 

S. ^ W. 77 m. from Gay Head, 

S. by E. i E. 97 m. from Gay Head, . 

S.S.W. 82 m from Gay Head, 

S. 79| m. from Gay Head, 

S. 75 m. from Gay Head, 

S.S.W. I W. 93^ m. from Gay Head,. 
S.S.E. I B. 105+ m. from Gay Head,. 

N. lat. 39' 59'; "W. long. 70" 06' 

N. lat. 38° 39'; W. long. 73° 11' 



Fath. 


Date. 


Rec'd from. 


1881 




45 


July 16 


U. S. F. C. 


5I| 


" 




61 


K 




65 


" 




69 


'' 




130 


Aug. 4 




124 


" 9 




100 


" 23 




69 


" 




182 


Sept. 8 




93 


" 14 




146 


" 21 




130 


Oct. 10 





Specimens. 
No. Sex. 



1? 



5? 
65 



1 ^ 
4,5 
3 5 
63 
1 2 
1? 

15:1? 
1 : eggs. 
15:2? 
15 
15 
55: 
5 



2? 



Argonauta argo Linne (p. 364.) 

In the American Naturalist, xv, p. 90S, another specimen of this 
species is reported by Rev. Samuel Lockwood to have occurred at 
Long Branch, N. J., September, 1881. The shell is stated to have 
been fresh. This is the third specimen obtained on the coast of 
New Jersey, since 1876. 

AlloposUS mollis Verrill. (See p. 366.) 

Octopus (l) sp., Verrill, Bulletin Mus. Comp. Zool., viii, p. 109, pi. 4, fig. 3, 1881. 
Plate L. Plate LI, figures 3, 4. 

Two very large females of this species were taken by the U. 
S. P^'ish Commission-, this season, off Newport, R. I. One was fi-om 
station 937, in 506 fathoms, the other from 994, in 368 fathoms. 

They wei-e nearly equal in size. The weight of the first, when 
fresh, was found to be over 20 pounds. Length from the posterior 
end of the body to the tips of the dorsal arms 787™"' (31 inches); to 
tips of 2d pair, 812"'"' (32 inches) ; to tips of 3d and 4th pairs, 711"'" 
(28 inches) ; length of mantle, beneath, 178""" (7 inches) ; beak to tips of 
3d pair of arms, 559"'"' (22 inches); breadth of body, 216""" (8-5 inches); 
breadth of head, 280""" (11 inches); diameter of eyes, 64"'"' (2*5 



A. E, Verrill — Korth America?i Cephalojmds. 



421 



inches) ; of largest suckers, 10'"'" ('.SS of an inch). It was measured 
while living. 

The body, when living, was short and broad, and so soft and gel- 
atinous that, when out of water, it could not retain its natural form. 
When placed in a large pan, it flattened out and tilled up the vessel, 
like a mass of rather stiff jelly. Color, in life, pale bluish white, 
speckled with rusty orange-brown chromatophores ; inner surfaces of 
arms dark purplish brown ; suckers white. 

Two detached and somewhat mutilated arms, with portions of a 
third arm and of the basal web, of a large specimen, formerly de- 
scribed by me as Octopus f sp., but which I now refer to this species, 
were taken by Mr. Agassiz, on the "Blake," in 1880, at station 336, 
N. lat. 38° 21' 50", W. long. 73° 32', in 197 fathoms. 

The largest of these arms is 420'""^ long and 36'^"" broad. The 
suckers are large, prominent, subglobular, with a contracted aperture, 
and having a thin membrane around the outer margin. They form 
two alternating, rather distant rows, except near the base, where 
several that are somewhat smaller than those farther out, stand nearly 
in one row, with wide spaces between them. Diameter of largest 
suckers, 9 to 11'"'"; distance between their centers, 20 to 35'"'". Color, 
dark purple. (PI. LI, tig. 3.) 

Smaller specimens were taken by us, this season, off Martha's 
Vineyard, in 310 to 715 fathoms; stations 938, 952, 953. 



AUojMsus mollis. — Additional specimens. 



Station. 


Locality. 


Fath. 


Date. 


Rec'd from. 


Specimens. 
No. Sex. 


336 


Off Delaiuare Bay. 
38° 21' 50"; 73° 32', 


197 

506 
310 
388 
715 
368 


1880 

1881 
kwg. 4 

" 23 

Sept. 8 


Blake Ex. 
U. S. P.C. 

11 


1 1. frag. 


937 
938 
952 
953 


Off Martha's Vineyard. 

S. by E. 4- E. 1 02 m. from Gaj Head 

S. by E. i E. 100 m. from Gav Head, 

S. i" E. 87i m. from Gay Head, 

S. i E 9l| m from Gay Head. 


11.9 
1 ]. ? 


994 


S.S.W. i- W. 104 J m. from Gay Head, 


1 1.? 



Octopus Bairdii Yerrm. (See p. 368.) 

Numerous additional specimens of this species were dredged off 
Martha's Vineyard, in 120 to 410 fathoms, by the U. S. Fish Com- 
mission, this season. 



422 A. E. Verrill — North American CepJialopods. 

Octopus Bairdii. — Additional specimens. 



925 

939 

945 

946 

947 

951 

952 

994 

997 

998 

1025 

1026 

1028 

1033 

1035 

1045 

1047 



Locality. 



Ojf Martlia\s Vineyard. 
S. i W. 86 m. from (Jay Head, 

S. by E. i E. 98 in. from (iay Head, 

S. by W. f W. 84i ra. from Gay Head,. . 
S. by W. f W. 87i m. from Gay Head,.. 
S. by W. f W. 89 m. from Gay Head,... 

S. 85 m. from Gay Head, 

S. i E. 87+ m. from Gay Head, 

S.S.W. I W. 104-i^m. from Gay Head,... 
S.S.W. i W. 103-i- ra. from Gay Head,... 
S.S.W. i W. 102i ra. from Gay Head,... 

S.S.W. i W. 95 ra. from Gay Head, 

S.S.W. i W. 93.+ m. from Gay Head,.... 

S.S.E. f E. 108* m. frora Gay Head, 

S.SE. i E. 106 m. from Gay Head 

S.S.E. I E. 103i m. from Gay Head, 

Off Delaware Bay, 

Off Delaware Bay, ... 



Fath. 


Bottom. 


Date. 






1881 


224 


saud, mud 


July 16 


258 


" 


Aug. 4 


202 


•' 


" 9 


241 


" 


" 


312 


" 


u 


219 


mud 


" 23 


388 


sand, mud 


" 


368 


mud 


Sept. 8 


335 


" 


" 


302 


" 


II 


216 


a 


" 


182 


" 


u 


410 


" 


" 14 


183 


sd., gravel 


•' 


120 


sand 


" 


312 


mud 


Oct. 10 


156 


sand 


•' 



Specimens. 
No. Sex. 



S: 3]. 5 
: 1 $ : 1 j. 

: 1 S 
:5^;2j. 

5:45 
: 2$ 
: 2 $ 
S 
6 
: 1 ? 

5 : 1 1. 2 



Architeuthis Harveyi Verrii). (No. 27). 

After the preceding pages were put in type, another specimen of 
Architexthis was secured. 

This was found dead, floating at the surface, near the shore, at 
Portugal Cove, a few miles from St. John's, Newfoundland, Novem- 
ber 10, 1881. It was obtained by Mr. Morris, who had a photograph 
of it made by Mr. E. liyons, of St. John's, and then shipped it to 
New York, packed in ice, by the steamer " Catima," Capt. Davies. 
Mr. Morris has given a brief description of this specimen in an article 
in the New York Herald of Nov. 25, 1881. In Harper's Weekly of 
Dee. 10, accompanying an article on the same subject, apparently by 
the same writer, there is a wood-cut, apparently copied from the 
photograph.* 

The specimen was purchased by Mr. E. M. Worth, and preserved, 
in alcohol, at his museum, 101 Bowery, N. Y., where I had a good 
opportunity to examine it about two weeks after it had been put in 
alcohol. 

Although this is more nearly complete than any specimen hitherto 
brought to this country, the arms and suckers are not so well 
preserved, as in some of the other examples. All the sessile arms 
have lost more or less of their tips, so that the actual length cannot 
be given, and many of their suckers are either injured or lost ; the 

* This figure, though poor, gives a fair idea of the general appearance of the crea- 
ture as it would look if lying flabby and collapsed on the shore. The peculiar appear- 
ance of the caudal fin was due to mutilation of that organ. 



A. E. YerHll — JVorth American Ceplialopods. 423 

tentacular arms are also injured and most of the large suckers of the 
clubs are destroyed ; the caudal fin was not only torn by handling, 
but one-half of it had, apparently, been destroyed and the wound 
healed before the death of the creature,* so that its triie form cannot 
be determined ; the eye-balls were burst ; and most of the pen was 
gone. 

The head, eye-lids, siphon, and front edge of the mantle are, how- 
ever, in fair condition, and as these parts have not been well preserved 
in any of the previous examples, some new and valuable facts were 
learned in regard to the structure of those parts. Many of the fol- 
lowing characters are of generic value. 

The eye-lids were large, not much thickened, and only slightly 
angulated, and with a shallow sinus; diameter of opening 120™™ 
(4-5 to 5 inches). The transverse nuchal crests, behind the eyes, are 
distinct, but only slightly elevated ; of the longitudinal ones only 
one, on each side, is distinct but is short and not very high, the others 
(unless they had been rubbed off) are rudimentary. The siphon is 
large and broad; aperture 102""" (4 inches) broad, slightly bilabiate, 
with a broad valve within ; dorsal bridles moderately developed. 
Siphon-pit shallow, smooth. Connective cartilages on base of the 
siphon simple, long-ovate, slightly oblique, and only a little concave. 
Connective cartilages on the sides of the mantle, short and close to 
the front edge, very simple, consisting of a simple, slightly raised, 
longitudinal ridge. The dorsal angle of the mantle-edge extends 
considerably forward, as an obtuse angle ; the lateral angles are also 
distinct. The body is large and broad in the middle and anteriorly, 
but tapers very rapidly to the base of the caudal fin, which is rela- 
tively small. 

This specimen, when examined by me, measured as follows : length 
of mantle to lateral angles of the front edge, 4-16 feet; from edge 
of mantle to anterior base of ventral arms, 1-25 feet; circumference 
of body, 4 feet ; length of caudal fin, tip to end of lobe, 1 '75 ; breadth 
of one-half, measured from median line, 8 inches ; length of tentacu- 
lar arms, 16 feet ; of the club, 2 feet ; from first of the large suckers 
to tip, 1*67 feet; length of ventral arms (minus tips), 4-C6 feet; their 
circumference at base, 8*5 inches; length of the dorsal arms (minus 
tips), 4-5 feet; their circumference at base, 7*5 inches; circumference 
of 2d pair of arms, at base, 7 "5 inches ; of 3d pair, 8-5 inches ; diame- 

* Owing to this fact, which was not understood by those wlio saw and figured it 
at first, some of the cuts that have been printed give the tail very peculiar and 
remarkable forms. 



424 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

tQx of largest suckers of sessile arms, '1o inch. The arms appear very- 
stout, especially at base, and not very unequal in size. In form they 
agree well with those already described from previous examples. 
The ventral arms have the inner face broader than on the other 
arms, and the two crests along the outer angles are well developed. 
The suckers, so far as preserved, have the same characters as in the 
former examples ; the more proximal of those on the ventral arms 
are closer together in a longitudinal direction, but the rows are 
f artlier apart than on the other arms. The mandibles are dai'k brown, 
the tooth on the anterior alar edge of the lower mandible is large 
and prominent. 

The color, which is partially preserved, especially on the arms and 
on the ventral surface of the body, agrees pretty nearly with that of 
Omiiiastrephes^ consisting of small purplish brown chroniatophores, 
more or less thickly scattered over the surface. The back had a 
bleached appearance, as if the creature had laid upon the shore or 
floated at the surface, with the back exposed, for some time after 
death. 

Owing to the mutilation of the tips of the ventral arms, hectocoty- 
lization could not have been detected, if it had originally existed. 
The sex, therefore, could not be determined without cutting open the 
mantle. By everting the edge of the mantle, as far as possible, I 
could see, owing to insuflicient light, only the tips of the gills, which 
are situated rather far back, but the reproductive organs could not 
be seen. 



A. E. Verrill — ISForth American Cephalopods. 425 



Conspectus of the Families, Genera and Species of Cephalopoda, 
included hi this paper. 

In the following synopsis the species that have actually been 
proved to belong to the fauna of the northeastern coast of America, 
or the waters adjacent, are numbered serially. They have all been 
personally studied by me, except Taonius pavo. 

Subclass DIBRANCHIATA. 

Cryptodibranchiaia Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. xxxii, p. 172, 1824. 
Acetahuliferes Ferns, k D'Orb., 1835; Cephal. Acetab., pp. v, xxxv, 1. 

D'Orbigny, Hist. Cuba, Moll, p. 5, 1853. 
Dihranchiata Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. Loudon, vol. ii, p. 103, 1838. 
Antepedia Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., Moll., vol. i, p. 3, 1849. 

Branchial cavity large, containing a single pair of large, highly 
specialized gills, each having a muscular branchial heart at its base. 
Mantle very muscular. Siphon completely tubular, with or without 
an internal valve, and used in locomotion. The interior lateral or 
basal lobes of the siphon are flexible, and capable of acting as valves 
to close the opening of the branchial sac by pressing against the in- 
side of the mantle when it contracts. The jet of water, thus forced 
through the siphon, by its reaction propels the animal backward or 
forward, or in any direction opposite to that in which its flexible 
extremity may be turned. 

The body varies in form from subspherical to long-conical; sides 
often with fins. Mantle destitute of an external shell. The internal 
shell, when present, is dorsal, and may be either horny or calcareous. 
Sessile arms in four pairs, around the head, provided, on the inner 
surface, with suckers or with hooks (modified suckers). Eyes highly 
developed. Mouth with a sharp, horny beak, the upper jaw shutting 
into the lower one; mandibles hollow, supported by strong internal 
cartilages. Odontophore with seven (or rarely five) rows of sharp 
teeth. An ink-sac, which opens near the end ol" the intestine, at the 
base of the siphon. 

This subclass inchides two very natural divisions: 

Decacera. — Having, inside the circle of eight sessile arms, two long 
tentacular arms, with suckers or hooks on the distal portion. Suckers 



426 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

pediceled, with horny rims. Body usually elongated, always with 
lateral fins.* 

Octopoda. — Having only the eight sessile arms. Suckers not 
pediceled, destitute of horny rings. Body usually short, obtuse, 
rarely finned. 

Order I.— DECACERA. 

Decapoda Leach, Zool. Miscel., vol. iii, 1817 (t. Gray) [nan Latr., 1806]. 

H. & A. Adams, Genera, vol. i, p. 25. 

D'Orbigay, Tabl. Meth. des Cephal., p. 57, 1826; Hist. Cuba, Moll., p. 30, 1853. 
Decacera Blainville, Diet. Soi. Nat., vol. xxii, 1824; Man. Mai., p. 366, 1825. 
Sephinia Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., Moll., vol. i, p. 35, 1849. 

Body generally rounded and elongated, often acute posteriorly. 
Ten prehensile arms, bearing suckers or hooks, which are pediceled. 
Four pairs of these, called sessile arms, are tapered from the base 
and covered with rows of suckers along the whole length of the 
inner face ; the fifth pair of arms, known as tentacular arras, differ 
from the rest, and arise frona a pair of pits or pouches, situated be- 
tween and inside the bases of the third and fourth pairs of sessile 
arms; they have a more or less slender and contractile peduncular 
portion and a distal, usually enlarged, sucker-bearing portion. Beak 
protractile, surrounded by an inner, and a loose outer buccal mem- 
brane, the latter usually with seven or eight angles, united to the 
arms by membranes. Eyes movable in the sockets, with or without 
lids. Head united to the mantle either by a dorsal commissure and 
two lateral, free, connective cartilages ; by three free connective carti- 
lages ; or by three muscular commissures. Mantle usually supported 
by an internal, dorsal, horny ' pen,' or by a calcareous, internal, 
dorsal shell or 'bone;' sometimes the pen is absent; always with 
muscular fins on each side. Male, when adult, usually with one or 
two of the arms hectocotylized. 

This group was divided by D'Orbigny into the following two 
tribes, which are more convenient than natural : 

Oigopsidce. — Eyes naked in front, furnished with free lids, with or 
without an anterior sinus; pupils round. 

MyopsldcB. — Eyes usually covered by transparent skin, sometimes 
with a thickened fold, forming a lower lid, but in IStoloteuthis the 
lids are entirely free ; pupils crescent-shaped, rarely round. 



* The name Decacera, though not in so general use as Decapoda for this group, is re- 
tained because the latter was previously, and still is, in use for a group of Crustacea, 
and, therefore, cannot properly be used for these Cephalopoda. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Ceplxaloiiods. 427 



OIGOPSID^. 

The division called Oigopsidce includes two very diverse groups, 
differing very widely in their visceral anatomy, as well as in the 
sti'ucture of the eyes, siphon, and mantle connections. These may 
be called Teuthidea and Taonidea. 

The former will include all the Oigopsidse described in this paper 
except the Desmoteuthidcu. The Taonidea will include our Desnio- 
teuthidee, and also several allied foi'ms, which have usually been 
carelessly referred to Lollfjopsis. 

TEUTHIDEA Verrill. 

Eyes with free lids, not stalked. Siphon Avith a subteruiinal valve. 
Mantle attached to the siphon by free connective cartilages. Stomach 
large, pouch-like; intestine short; liver very large; ink-sacs large. 
Pen horny, well developed, as long as the mantle. One of the 
ventral arms is usually hectocotylized in the male. Arms with 
suckers, or with claws, or with both. 

Family TEUTHID^ Owen (restricted.) 

Teuthida (pars) Owen, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. ii, 1838. 

Teuthidce (pars) D'Orbigny, Ceplial. Acetab.. p. xxxvii (Introduction), p. 328, 1835- 

1848. 
Onychoieuthidm (pars) Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., Moll, vol. i, p. 45, 1849. 

H. & A. Adams, Genera, vol. i, p. 30. 

Tentacular arms furnished with sharp, horny claws or hooks, Avhich 
correspond with peculiarly and highly modified sucker-rings ; true 
denticulated suckers usually accompany the hooks; tip of arm with 
a cluster of small suckers; proximal part of club usually with a 
mixed group of connective tubercles and smooth-rimmed suckers, by 
which the arms can be fastened together and used in concert. Ses- 
sile arms with hooks, with suckers, or with both. Eyes with free 
lids and a sinus. Mantle united to neck by three sim))le, movable, 
connective cartilages. Siphon with a valve and with dorsal bridles. 
Nuchal or olfactory crests well developed. Pen thin, usually lanceo- 
late, generally with a posterior hooded portion, or hollow cone, and 
sometimes terminated by a solid cartilaginous cone. Hectocotylized 
arm not observed. 

Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 51 December, 1881. 



428 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

Vov a brief syDopsis of the previously known genera of this fam- 
ily,* see pp. 250, 251. 

Owen's family, Teuthidm, included nearly all the Decacera having 
horny internal sludls. As adopted hy D'Orbigny, it included our 
Omniastrephidm and Teuthidm. 

Enoploteuthis (See pp. 25 1, 404). 

Enoploteuthis Hartingii Vcrriii. (pp. 240, 241, 404). 
Enoploteuthis Molinae ii'Orb.=E. Cookii Owen. (pp. 241, 404). 

Moroteuthis Verrill. (See p. 393). 
Moroteuthis robusta (I)all) Verrill. (pp. 246, 393). 

GonatuS Graj'. (See pp. 290, 387, 390). 

Gonatus amcenus Gray. (pp. 291, 388, 390). 

LestoteuthiS Verrill. (See pp. 250, 387, 390). 
1. LestoteuthiS Fabricii (Licht.) Verrill (pp. 291, 293, 387-390). 

Family OMMASTREPHID^. 

Teuthidce (pars) D'Orbig.. Cephal. Acetab., pp. xxxvii, 328. 
Onychoteuthidce (pars) Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., Moll., vol. i. p. 45, 1849. 
Ommastrephidoe Gill, Classification Mollusca, p. 1, 1871. 
Tryon, Man. Conch., vol. i, p. 107, 1879. 

Body elongated, often very large (Arehiteuthis), tapeiing to a point 
posteriorly, shorter and less acute in the female. Sessile and tentacu- 
lar arms without hooks, but provided with suckers, liaving denticu- 
lated, horny rings ; tentacular arms witli an expanded club, having 
four rows of suckers on its middle portion, those in the two central 
rows larger; proximal portion with or without smooth-rimmed con- 
nective suckers and tubercles ; tip with a cluster of smooth-rimmed 
suckers. Siphon in a deep groove, attached by four bridles ; an internal 
valve. Elye-lids with a distinct anterior sinus. Nuchal and olfactory 
crests consist of three longitudinal membranes on each side, united 
by a transverse one in front. Connective cartilages of the mantle 

*The genus Dosidicus Steenst., should not have been there included. It belongs to 
the Omm.astrej)hidw, and is very closely related to Sthenoteuthis. The tentacular club 
bears denticulated suckers and the terminal cone of the pen is hollow. 

Ancistroteuthis Krohnii appears to belong to Onychoteuthis. Gonatus and LestoteuthiS 
have since boon restricted and their characters revised. (See pp. 388-394). 



A. E. Verrill — N'orth American Ceplmlopods. 429 

three ; tlie lateral ones are usually T-shaped, formed by a longitudinal 
ridge, with a smaller transverse one across its posterior end ; the 
corresponding cartilages on the siphon are long-triangular, with a 
longitudinal and a transverse groove. Two oviducts. Hectocotylized 
arm of the male may be either the right or left ventral. 

Pen usually very narrow along the middle portion, and with three 
ribs; anterior and posterior portions expanded, the latter with the 
edges involute, and forming:, a terminal hood or hollow cone. 

Ommastrephes (See pp. 267, 385). 

Ommastrephes {pars) D'Orbigny, Voy. Am. Merid., 1835; Cephal. Acetab., p. 341. 
lUex and Todarodes Steenstrup, Oversigt k. Danske Videnske. Selsk. Forliand., 1880, 
p. 90. 

2. Ommastrephes illecebrostis (Les.) Vemii. (pp. 2G8, 403). 

Sthenoteuthis Von-ill. (See pp. 222, 28(J, 385, 402). 

Ommastrephes (pars) D'Orbigny, Voy. Anier. Merid., Mo)l.. (1835 ?) ; Cephal. Ac^tab., 

1839-'48. 
Sthenoteuthis Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad., vol. v, p. 222. l''eb., 1880; Amer. Journ. 

Sci.. vol. xix, p. 289, April, 1880. 
Omraas/rtf^)/(es Steenstrup, Oversigt k. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. l"\irliandl., 1880, p. 

89 (sep. cop. p. 19, received Aug., 1880). 

3. Sthenoteuthis megaptera Verriu. (pp. 223, 28G). 

Sthenoteuthis pteropUS (Steenst.) Vernll. (pp. 228, 402). 

4. sthenoteuthis Bartramii (Les.) Verriii. (p. 288). 

ArchiteuthiS (Steenst.) Harting, 1881. (See pp. 197, 259, 394, 422). 
Architeuthus Steenst., 1856, (no description). 

5. ArchiteuthiS Harveyi Verrill. (pp. 177-210, 259, 395, 422). 

6. ArchiteuthiS princeps Verrill. (pp. 1 8 1-1 89, 194, 259). 
ArchiteuthiS monachus (Steenst.) (pp. 238-245). 

ArchiteuthiS dux (Steenst.) Gervais. (pp. 238-240). 

ArchiteuthiS Hartingii Verrill. (p. 240). 
Arc'^^iteuthis Bouyeri Verriii. (p. 243). 
ArchiteuthiS (?) Mouchezi Veiain. (pp. 243, 398). 

ArchiteuthiS grandiS (Owen) Verrill. (p. 400). 



430 A. M Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

The number of the foreign species, mostly nominal and imperfectly 
known, will undoubtedly be much reduced when they become 
better known. Probably A. dux and A. Bouyeri are identical, but 
there is as yet no proper zoological descii^jtion of either. The 
former has been very briefly described by Gervais, and Harting has 
published an outline figure of one of the mandibles. 

Family MASTIGOTEUTHID^E, nov. 

Body slender, pointed behind. Caudal fin large, rhombic. Mantle 
united to neck by three movable cartilages. Siphon with an inter- 
nal valve and one pair of doi'sal bridles. Eyes large, not promi- 
nent ; lids free, simple. Buccal membrane 6-angled, without suckers. 
Arms free; suckers in two rows. Tentacular arms (in the typical 
species) not expanded into a club, the terminal portion round, taper- 
ing, covered with a multitude of minute suckers, in many rows. 
Neither auditory nor olfactory crests. Pen narrow, with a long, 
hollow posterior cone. 

This family differs from Ommastrephldm in lacking a distinct 
lachrymal sinus and olfactory frills, in the remarkable character of 
the tentacular arms, and in the simple connective cartilages. 

MastigOteuthis Verrill. (See p. 296). 

7. MastigOteuthis Agassizii VerriU. (p. 297). 

Family CHIROTEUTHID^ Gray, (restricted). 

Loligopsidce (pars) D'Orb., Cephal. Acetab., p. 320, 1835-48. 
Chiroteuthidce (pars) Gray, Brit. Mus. Catal., Moll., vol. i, p. 42, 1849. 

Body small; mantle with three movable connective cartilages. 
Eyes not prominent, with free, simple lids; no sinus. Siphon small, 
with an internal valve; no dorsal bridle. Olfactory crests absent. 
Buccal membrane seven-angled, without suckers. Buccal aquiferous 
openings six. Sessile arms large ; web rudimentary ; suckers with 
toothed horny rings, encircled by a groove. Tentacular arms very 
long and slender, with a large club; tip often with a spoon-shaped 
organ, opening backward ; peduncle with sessile connective suckers ; 
club with rows of singular small suckers, having a swollen biilb on 
the long pedicel. Pen with a long, narrow shaft, posterior portion 
involute, tubular. 

It is somewhat doubtful whether Callifeut/i is belongs to this family, 
its tentacular arms being unknown. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 431 

Chiroteuthis D'Orb. (Seep. 299). 
Chiroteuthls is the only genus in tliis family that has been hitherto 
recognized. 

8. Chiroteuthis lacertosa Verriii. (pp. 299, 408). 

Brachioteuthis Verrill. (See p. 405). 

9. Brachioteuthis Beanii Ven-iii. (p. 406). 

Calliteuthis Yerrill. (p. 295). 

10. Calliteuthis reversa Ven-iii. (p. 295). 

Calliteuthis OCellata (Owen) Yerrill. (p. 402). 

Family HISTIOTEUTHID^E, nov. 

Loligopsidm (jxirs) D'Orbig., Ceplial. Acetab., p. 320, 1835-48. 
Chiroteuthidm {pars) Gray, Catal. Brit. Mus., Moll., vol. i, p. 42, 1849. 

Body small, short, with small caudal fins. Mantle united to the 
neck by three movable cartilages. Siphon with neither dorsal bridle 
nor internal valve (?).* Head large. Olfactory crests absent. Eyes 
large, not prominent ; lids free and simple ; no sinus. Buccal mem- 
brane with six smooth lobes ; buccal aquiferous openings four. Nine 
brachial openings at the bases of the tentacular arms. Six upper 
arms usually united by a very broad web ; sucker-rings convex, with 
small, oblique apertures. Tentacular arms moderate, with a well- 
developed club, bearing large, normal, central suckers, and small 
marginal ones ; proximal part of the club with connective suckers 
and tubercles. Pen broad, short, lanceolate, much like that of Loligo. 

Histioteuthis D'Orbigny. (See p. 233). 

11. Histioteuthis Collinsii Yerrill. (pp. 234, 300.404). 

TAONIDEA Verrill. 
Eyes large, stalked or prominent, having free lids, but no sinus. 
Mantle united to base of siphon and back of neck by three muscular 
commissures. Siphon large, without a true subterminal valve, but 
usually with special elevated processes, or flaps, in the liasal portion. 
Stomach small, far back ; intestine very long, covered with lateral 



* According to D'Orbigny there is no valve in this genus, nor in Chiroteuthis, but in 
the latter tliere is certainly a valve, and it may have been overlooked by him, also, 
in the former. My specimens lack the siphon. 



432 A. K Verrill — Worth American Cejyhalopods. 

follicular glands; liver small, far forward; ink-sac small. Pen slen- 
der anteriorly, as long as the mantle. Hectocotylized arm not 
observed. All the arms bear suckers. 



Family DESMOTEUTHID^E Verrill. (See p. 300). 

Body much elongated, mantle united to the neck by three mus- 
cular commissures. Siphon without a true valve, but with three 
peculiar, special thickenings, or raised processes* in its basal portion. 
Eyes prominent. Intestine very long ; ink-sac small. 

Desmotenthis Yerrill. (See p. 300). 

12. Desmoteuthis hyperboreus (Steenst.) Verriii. (p. 302). 

13. Desmoteuthis tenera Verriii. (p. 412). 

Taonius Steenstrup, restricted. (See p. 306). 

14. Taonius paVO (Les.) steenstrup. (Seep. 306). 

MYOPSID^ D'Orbigny. 

Eyes usually without regular lids ; the integument of the head 
sometimes becomes transparent and extends continuously over the 
eye; in some genera {Rossia, &c.) there is a fold of skin below the 
eye, constituting a free lower eyelid, while the upper lid is adherent 
to the eye-ball ; but in Stoloteiithis the lids are entirely free. The 
pupil is lasually crescent-shaped, or indented on the upper side, but 
is round in Stoloteuthis. Sometimes a small pore in front of the 
anterior edge of the eye connects with the orbital cavity. Siphon 
usually with a valve. 

This artificial division includes two very diverse groups, which not 
only differ widely in the condition of the eyes, but also in the nature 
of the hectocotylization of the arms, and in anatomical characters. 

To one of these groups, containing the femily Sepiolidce, I propose 
to apply the name Sepiolidea. 

The other division, Sejyidea, includes the families, Sepidce, Loli- 
gi?iidce, Idiosepidce, and perhaps SpiruUdm; but the latter might, 
perhaps, be best placed with fossil forms in a division of which it is 
the sole surviving genus. 

* Of these orp:ans the median dorsal one is larger and more complicated than the 
others (see PI. LV, fig. Id. m ; and fig. 4a). It seems to me probable that this organ 
is a true homologue of the foot of gastropods. 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 433 

SEPIDEA Verrill. 

The integument extends entirely over the eye and thei-e is a pore 
in front of it. Pupil creseent-shaped. Body commonly elongated. 
Pen various, rarely absent, usually large, broad-lanceolate or ovate, 
either horny or calcareous (spirally coiled, tubular and chambered 
in Spirxda, in which it is posteriorly situated.) One of the ventral 
arms of the male is usually hectocotylized. 

Mantle usually with three connective cartilages, rarely with one 
(dorsal) or three muscular commissures. 



Family LOLIG-INID^. 

Teuthidce (pars) Owen, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 285, 1847. 
Loligidce D'Orbigny, Ceph. Acetab., p. 297, 1848. 
Loligidce {pa7-s) Gray. Catal. Moll. Brit. Mus., vol. i, p. 66, 1849. 
LoliginidoB (pars) H. & A. Adams, Genera Moll., vol. i, p. 35. 

Body more or less elongated, cylindro-conical. P^ins elongated, 
united and acute posteriorly, sometimes extending the whole length 
of the body. Pen large, extending the whole length of the mantle, 
with an acute, short, pen-like anterior shaft, and a broader, thin, 
lanceolate blade. Connective cartilages of the mantle three, mov- 
able. Eyes without a thickened false lid. Siphon provided with an 
internal valve, and usually with a dorsal bridle. Olfactory crests, 
about the ears, well-developed. Tentacular club large, with four 
rows of denticulated suckers on the middle portion. Horny rings of 
the suckers encircled externally by a raised median ridge. 

LiOligO Lamarck. (See p. 307). 

15. Loligo Pealei Les. (p. 308). 

16. Loligo (Lolliguncula) brevis Biainv.* (p. 343). 

SepioteuthiS D'Orbig. (See p. 346). 

Sepioteuthls sepioidea D'Orb. (p. 345). 

* Professor Steenstnip, in a recent paper (Sepiadarium og Idiosepius.<;Vid. Selsk. 
Skr., 6 R., 1, 3, p. 242, note, 1881), has proposed to make this species the type of a 
new genus, Lolliguncula, because the female receives the spermatophores on the inner 
surface of the mantle, — a character that seems to be scarcely of generic value, unless 
it be reinforced by anatomical differences now unknown. Such characters may possi- 
bly exist in the unknown males. 



434 A. E. Verrill— North American Cephalopods. 

SEPIOLIDEA Verrill. 
In this group the eye-lids are either entirely free all around, or the 
upper one may be attached to the eye-ball. Pupil either round or 
crescent-shaped. Body short, obtuse. Fins lateral, separated. Pen 
small or rudimentary, sometimes absent. Sucker-rings smooth. Dor- 
sal arms of the male are usually hectocotylized, one or both. 

Family SEPIOLID^. (See pp. 347, 4i6). 

Stoloteuthis Ven-m. (See pp. 3-47, 417). 

17. Stoloteuthis leucoptera Ven-iii. (pp. 347, 4i8). 

Inioteuthis Japonica (D'Orb., sp. ?) Yerrill. (p. 417). 
Inioteuthis Morsei Verrill, sp. nov. (p. 417). 

Rossia Owen. (See p. 349). 

18. Rossia megaptera v. (p. 349). 

19. Rossia Hyatti v. (p. 351). 

20. Rossia sublevis V. (pp. 354, 4i9). 

Heteroteuthis Gray. (See p. 357). 

21. Heteroteuthis tenera v. (pp. 357, 419). 

OCTOPODA Leach. (See p. 360). 

Family PHILONEXID^ D'Orb. (See p. sei). 

Parasira Steenst. (Seep. 361). 
Vidensk. meddel. naturh. Foreuirig, Kjobenhavn, 1860, p. 33 3. 

22. Parasira catenulata steenst. (p. 362). 

Family ARGON AUTID^ Cantr. (See p. 364). 

Argonauta Liun^. 

23. Argonauta argO Linne. (pp. 364, 420). 

Family ALLOPOSID^ Verrill. (See p. 365). 

AllopoSUS Verrill. (See p. 365). 

24. AllopOSUS mollis Verrill. (pp. 366, 420). 



A. E. Verrill — North American Cephalopoda. 



435 



Family OCTOPODID^ D'Orb. (Seep. 367). 

Octopus Lam. (See p. 367). 

25. Octopus Bairdii Verrill. (pp. 368, 421). 

26. Octopus lentUS Verrill. (p. 375). 

27. Octopus piscatorura Verrill. (p. 377). 

28. Octopus obeSUS A^errlU. (p. 379.) 
Octopus rUgOSUS Bosc. (p. 368). 

Octopus vulgaris, ip. 252). 

Octopus punctatUS Gabb. (p. 252). 

Eledone Leach, (p. 380). 

29. Eledone verrucosa Verriii. (p. 380). 

Family CIRRHOTEUTHID^ Keff. (See p. 382). 

Stauroteuthis Verrill. (p. 382). 

30. stauroteuthis syrtensis Verriu. (p. 382). 




Teams. Conn. Acad,. Vol. V. 



52 



December, 1881. 



EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES. 

All the flo;nres were drawn from nature by Mr. J. H. Emerton, except -when other- 
wise stated.* 

Plate XXVI. 
Figure 1. — Architeuthis Harveyi V. (N'o. 24). Young. Pharynx and beak, with 

odontophore; o, oesophagus, natural size. 
Figure 2. — The same. Distal part of tentacular arm, with cliib, natural size. 
Figure 3. — The same. Segment from distal portion of left arm of the third pair of ses- 
sile arms, front view; 3a, the same, side view, natural size. 
Figure 4. — The same. Basal portion of right arm, of second pair. Front view, 

natural size. 
Figure 5. — Architeuthis Harveyi V. (Xo. 2). One of the marginal suckers of the 
club, side view ; 5a, the same, front view, enlarged 2 diameters. 

Pl.\te XXVII. 
Figure 1. — Desmoteuthis }iyperbo?-ea V. Ventral view of a female, ^ natural size. 
Figure 2. — The same specimen. Dorsal view of head and arms. Part of the arms 

are imperfect. 
Figure 3. — Ristioteuthis Collinsii V. Original type. One of the tentacular arms. 

Front view, -J natural size. 
Figure 4. — Beak of the same specimen ; a, upper, 6, lower mandible, natural size. 
Figure 5— Suckers of the same specimen: a, side, and a', front view of one of the 

larger suckers of lateral arm ; h, side, and 6' front view of a distal sucker, 

enlarged 2J diameters. 
Figure 6. — Sthenoteuthis megcq^iera V. Side view of jaws and odontophore. natural 

size. 
Figure 7 and 7a. — Sllienoteuthis pteropus V. Upper and lower mandibles, natural 

size. 
Figure 8. — Rossia Hyatti V. Side view of young male, natural size. 
Figure 9. — The same. Egg containing an embryo ; enlarged G diameters. The 

shaded portion represents the yolk still remaining unabsorbed. 
Figure 10. — Onychoteuthis Banksii. Oue of the large hooks from the middle of the 

club ; a, side view ; a', front view ; enlarged 4 diameters. 
Figure 11. — The same. Corresponding views of one of the smaller hooks of the club. 
Figure 12. — The same. Horny ring from one of the small suckers on the proximal 

cluster of coimective suckers and tubercles of the club ; a, side view ; a', front 

view, enlarged 4 diameters. 



* Most of these figures were drawn in India ink, by Mr. Emerton. for the U. S. 
Fish Commission, to be engraved in relief, to illustrate a report on the Cephalopods by 
the writer, which has been printing nearly simultaneously with this article in one of 
the volumes of the report of Professor S. F. Baird, the Commissioner. To Professor 
Baird I am greatly indebted for the privilege of first using a large part of the draw- 
ings here, which has enabled me to illustrate this article more fully than would, 
otherwise, have been possible. 



A. E. Verrlll — Nortli American Cephalopods. 437 

Plate XXVIII. 

Figure 1. — Ommastrephes illecehrosus V. Touug male from Provincetown, Mass. 
General dgiire of ventral side, j natural size ; la, club of the right tentacular 
arm, front view, enlarged ly. 

Figure 2. — The same. Club and part of tentacular arm, of a larger $ specimen, 
enlarged If diameters. 

Figure 3, 3«. — The same. Hectocotylized right ventral arm of a large male specimen, 
from Eastport, Me., showing the sexual modification of the suckers and their 
peduncles toward the end of the arm ; 3a transverse section of the modified por- 
tion of the same. 

Figure 4. — The same. Pen of a young specimen ; f natural size. 

Figures 5 and 5a. — The same. Side and front views of a large sucker of the lateral 
arms, enlarged 3f diameters. 

Figure 6 and 6a. — Side and front views of a smaller, distal sucker of the lateral arms. 

Figure 7. — The same. 2 Side view of the horny ring of one of the largest suckers 
of the club, enlarged 3f diameters. 

Plate XXIX. 

Figure 1. — Loligo Pealei Lesueur. Female from A'lueyard Sound. Ventral view, f 
natural size; 1, dorsal arms; "2,3, 2d and 3d. lateral arms ; 4, ventral arms ; /, 
tentacular arms : a, nuchal olfactory crests, about the ear ; e. eye ; p, aquiferous 
pore ; s, siphon. 

Figure 2. — The same. Tentacular arm of a large male, enlarged 14- diameters. 

Figure 3, Hn. — Front and side views of the hectocotylized left ventral arm of a male, 
showing the sexual modifications of the suckers and their peduncles, toward the 
tip, enlarged 1^ diameters. 

Figure 4. — The same. Female. Front view of the beak and buccal membranes, 
natural size ; m, mandibles ; /. inner fold ; / second fold of the buccal membrane ; 
a, dorsal ; h, c, lateral ; d. ventral angles of the outer buccal membrane, with 
their small suckers ; s, peculiar horse-shoe shaped tubercle, or sucker, for the 
attachment of the spermatophores, during copulation. 

Figui'e 5. — Ommastrephes illeceh-osus. Side view of the head and siphon, after 
removal of part of the mantle, f natural size ; 1, 2, 3, 4, bases of 1st to 4th pairs 
of sessile arms; t a, base of tentacular arm; m, mantle; &, &', olfactory crests 
around the ear ; d, siphon ; /, /', the connective cartilages for attachiug it to the 
mantle. 

Figure 5a. — The same. Lateral connective cartilage, or 'button' on the inside of the 
mantle, which fits closely into the cartilage pit (/) on the base of the siphon. 

Plate XXX. 
Figure 1. — Rossia Hyatti VerrUl. Female. Ventral view of the head and arms, en- 
larged 3 diameters. 
Figure 1. — Rossia suhlecis Verrill. Female. Ventral view of the head and arms, 



enlarged 3 diameters. 



Plate XXXI. 



Figure 1. — Rossia Hyatti. Dorsal view, enlarged 1^ diameters. 
Figure 2. — The same. A young specimen, enlarged 1^ diameters. 



438 A. JS. Verrill — North American Cephulopods. 

Figure 3. — Rossia suhlevis. Ventral view, enlarged 1-^ diameters. 

Eigure 4. — Stoloteuthis leucoptera Verrill. Female. Young, ventral view, enlarged 3 

diameters. 
Figure 5. — The same. Male. A larger specimen, taken in 1879, enlarged 1-^ diameters. 

Plate XXXII. 

Figure 1. — Stauroteutliis syrtensis V. Dorsal view, ,^7 natural size. 
Figure 2.— The same. Lower side of head; s, siphon; e, eye; «, the auditory pore. 
Figure 3. — The same. The siphon, turned back. 

Figures 4 and 5. — The same. Superior and inferior mandibles, enlarged 2| diameters. 
This plate was drawn by the author, from the alcoholic specimen, except figs. 4 and 
5, which are by J. H. Emerton. 

Plate XXXIII. 

Figure 1. — Octopus Bairdii A^errill. Male. Ventral view, natural size; h, terminal 

organ of the hectocotylized arm ; i, the groove along the lower side of the arm. 
Figure In. — The same specimen. Hectocotylized arm, enlarged two diameters. 
Figure 2. — Parasira catenulata Steenst. Female. Front view, J natural size. 
Figure 2a. — The same specimen. Side view, \ natural size. 

Plate XXXIV. 

Figure 1. — Loligo Pealei^ var. pallida V. Male. Dorsal view, about ^ natural size. 

Figure 2. — The same. Pen, about -i natural size. 

Figure 3. — The same. Portion ot radula, much enlarged. 

Figure 4. — The same. Upper mandible: a, rostrum or tip of the beak; &, the notch; 

c, the inner end of ala ; d, the frontal lamina; e, the palatine lamina; a&, the 
cutting edge of beak ; &c, anterior or cutting edge of ala. 

Figure 4a. — Lower mandible : a, rostrum; ah, cutting edge; &c, anterior edge of ala ; 

d, mentum or chin ; e, gular lamina. 

Figure 5. — Octopus Bairdii V. Young male. Side-view from a living specimen, 

nearly natuT'al size. 
Figure 6. — The same. Dorsal view, from life, nearly natural size. 

Figs. 3, 4, 4a, were drawn by the author ; the others by .J. H. Emerton. 

Plate XXXV. 
Figure 1. — Octopus leutus V. Female. Original specimen. Ventral view, f natural 

size. 
Figure 2. — The same specimen. Dorsal view, 3 natural size. 

Plate XXXVI. 

Figure 1. — Octopus piscatorum V. Female. Original type. Ventral view, | nat- 
ural size. 

Figure 2. — The same specimen. Dorsal view. 

Figure 3.— Octopus ohesus V. Male. Original type. Basal portion of one of the 
lateral arms, to show the arrangement of suckers, natural size. 

Figure 4. — The same specimen. Terminal portion of the hectocotylized arm, en- 
larged l^ diameters. 

Figure 5.—Sthenote2dhis pte'^opus V., from Bermuda. Female. Anterior end of 
pen, natural size. 



A. E.Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 439 

Figure 5a. — Posterior end of the same pen. 

Figure 6. — The same specimen. Connective cartilage from base of the siphon, natural 

size. 
Figure 7. — The same specimen. Transverse sections of arms; a, of dorsal; 6, of 2d 

pair ; c, of third pair, natural size. Tlie suckers are omitted. 
Figure 8. — The same specimen. Rims of suckers of sessile arms, enlarged \\ diameter ; 

a, a', side and front views of the 15th and 13th sucker of a ventral arm; &, 6', 

side and front view of one of the largest suckers of a lateral arm ; c, c/. a dorsal 

sucker of a dorsal arm. 
Figure 9. — Part of border of one of the larger suckers (12th) of the second pair of 

arms, more enlarged, showing part of the dentate edge of the horny rim, with 

a portion of the circle of small plates, attaclied to the membranous border. 
Figxire 10. — Octopus Bairdii V. Spermatophores. A, one with the inner sac [S) 

partly extruded ; i, the point from which the extension commences, natural size • 

B, another spermatophore in its original condition; re, filament at large end; 6, 

filament at small end. 

Plate XXX Y II. 
Figure 1. — Loligo Pealei Les. Female specimen from Vineyard Sound. Pen. natural 

size and represented as flattened to show the full width of the thin portion. 
Figure 2. — Loligo Pealei, var. lorealis. Female specimen, from Annisquam, Mass. 

Pen, natural size, represented in the same manner. 
Figure 3. — Loligo Pealei. Pen of a young specimen from Vineyard Sound, natural 

size. Represented in the same way. 
Figure b.—Histioteuthis Collinsii V. Teeth of the odontophore, isolated and enlarged 

25 diameters ; a, median ; &, inner lateral ; c, and d, outer laterals ; e, marginal 

plate ; h, g. and /, other views of the lateral teeth. The teeth are not drawn in 

their natural positions. 
Figure 6. — Loligo ■pallida V. Part of teeth of the odontophore, enlarged 50 diameters ; 

a, median tooth, front view ; c, next to outer lateral teeth : d, outer lateral teeth ; 

e, marginal plates ; all are in their natural positions, except a. 
Figure 7. — Sthenoteuthis pteropus V., from Bermuda. Isolated teeth from odontophore, 

enlarged 25 diameters; a. median teeth, front view; &, inner lateral ; c, middle 

lateral; rf, outer lateral tooth. 
Figure 8. — Ommastrephes illecebrosus Les., from Eastport, Me., part of the teeth of the 

odontophore in their natural positions, enlarged 25 diameters; a. median teeth; 

h and 6', inner lateral teeth; c, middle lateral teeth ; c?, outer lateral teeth. 
Figure 9. — Loligo Pealei, var. pallida V. Female, from Ansonia, N. Y. Tenth 

sucker of the third pair of arms ; a, lateral, and &, front view, enlarged 2 

diameters. 
Figure 10. — The same. Male, from Ansonia. Suckers enlarged 2 diameters; a, front 

view of tenth, from third arm : h, side view of same ; c, side view of horny rim 

of fifth large sucker of tentacular club; d, front view of the same. 
Figure 11. — Loligo Pealei, var. pallida. Female. (Same specimen as figure 9.) 

Fifth large sucker of tentacular arm ; e, side, and /, front view. Enlarged 2 

diameters. 
Figures 5-8 are from camera-lucida drawings by the author ; the others are by J. 
H. Emerton. 



440 A. E. Verrill — North American Cephulopods. 

Plate XXXVIII. 

Figure 1. — Rossia merjaptera V., sp. nov. Dorsal view, natural size. 

Figare 2.— Ommastrephes illecehrosus. Male, -J- natural size. Opened on the ventral 
side. The peritoneal membrane, most of the renal organs on the right side, and 
the reproductive organs, except the testicle (t), have been removed. M, mantle 
cut open : F, caudal fin : P, posterior part of pen ; S, stomach ; S', ccecnl lobe ; 
H, systemic heart; c, the eye; h, olfactory or nuchal crests; d, siphon; /,/, con- 
nective cartilages on the base of the siphon ; /', /', connective cartilages of the 
mantle, which fit into/;/; v/, lateral muscles of neck; g, g, gills; Z, liver; i, 
ink-sac; h, intestine or rectum; ao, anterior aorta, going to head; bo, efferent 
branchial vessel; o, median ventral artery of mantle; o', o', lateral arteries going 
to mantle and fins ; a u, branchial auricles ; v c, anterior vena-cava ; v c", pos- 
terior vena-cava of left side (the right one has been removed); r, r, saccular ven- 
tral renal organs; r', more compact glandular (renal) or-an, connected with the 
posterior venas-cavas ; i, testicle or spermary ; p", hooded posterior tip of pen, 
enclosing the end of the spermary. From an alcoholic specimen. 

Figure 3.—Architeuthis Harveyi V. (No. 24). Sucker (50th) of lateral arm, second 
pair, showing the scales around the aperture, front view, enlarged about 4 
diameters. 

Figure 4. — The same specimen. Otolith; «, side-view; &, front-view. 

Figure 5. — The same specimen. Portion of radula, showing most of three transverse 
rows of teeth ; a, median teeth ; h, h'. inner-lateral teeth ; c. c', and d, two outer- 
lateral rows of teeth, much enlarged. 

Figure 6. — The same, more enlarged, lettered as in fig. 5. 

Figure Tc'. — The same. One of the teeth from the outer-lateral row. 

Figure 8. — Octopus Bairdii V. Male. Figured in the act of swimming, dorsal view ; 
a, terminal spoon of hectocotylized arm. From a living specimen, nearly natural 
size. 

Pl.\te XXXIX. 

Figure 1. — Desmoteuthis hyperborea V. Female. Specimen opened on the ventral 
side. M, mantle; F, caudal fin; P, P', posterior part of pen; c, c, eyes; d, 
siphon; do, aperture of same; d", base and posterior entrance of same; /', com- 
missure attaching the siphon to the mantle laterally ; g, g, gills ; h, rectum ; S, 
S, S, divisions of stomach and coecal lobe ; I, I, long tubular intestine, plicated 
within, and with rows of follicular glands along each side ; i, liver and ink-sac ; 
H. systemic heart or ventricle ; b o, branchial efferent vessels ; a u, branchial 
auricles; ?; c", posterior vena-cava ; r', renal organs; ov, ovary; o i;', some ovules 
larger than the rest; op, op, right and left oviducts; a;', nidamental glands of 
the oviducts ; xx, x x', accessory nidamental glands. From a mutilated specimen. 

Figure 2. — Ommastreplies illecebrosus. Female, less than natural size. Lettering as 
in Plate 38, fig. 2, with the following additional letters: &", lower nuchal facet, 
with the auditory pore; u, urethreal openings in the peritoneal membrane, com- 
municating between the gill-cavity and the visceral cavity, containing the renal 
organs, r, r ; v c'. lateral pallial veins, or vente-cavse ; o v, ovary ; o d,o d', right 
and left oviducts ; oj'j, the anterior opening ; ox, a; ic, nidamental glands. 

Figures. — OmitMstrephes ilkcebroms. Jaws enlarged U diameters: a, superior; 
b. inferior mandible. 

Figure 4. — Loligo Peaki. Portion of the radula, nnich enlarged. 



A. M Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 441 

Plate XL. 

Figure I. — Loligo Pealei, var. pallida. Male. Ventral view, about |- natural size. 
The mantle has been cut open, a little to one side of the median line ; most of the 
peritoneal membrane has been removed. C, lower side of head ; M, mantle ; F, 
caudal fin; a, lachrymal pore; h, olfactory crests; c, eye; d, siphon, cut opeu ; 
d'% cavity of siphon; e, valve of siphon; /, one of the coonective cartilap:es of 
the siphon ; /', one of the connective cartilages of the mantle, in the form of a 
ridge, fitting into the siphonal cartilage ; g. gill ; /i, termination of the intestine, 
or rectum; i, ink-Sric; V, duct of ink-sac; I, portion of liver, in position; ?«.', ?n'i 
muscular columns connecting the head and siphon with dorsal portion of the 
body; FT, systemic heart, or ventricle, crossed b^y the artery of the ink-sac; 
a 0, bulbous base of anterior aorta ; o, ventral pallial artery, or median branch of 
the posterior aorta, supplying the ventral parts of the mantle ; o\ one of the 
caudal arteries or lateral branches of the posterior aorta going to the caudal fin 
and posterior parts of the mantle ; au, a m, branchial auricles ; 6 ?', afferent vessel 
going to the gills; ho, efferent branchial vessels, returning the blood to the ven- 
tricle, their swollen basal portions acting as auricles ; v c, atiterior vena-cava ; r, r, 
ventral renal organs, two ventral sacculated branches of the vena-cava (on the 
left side, the vein from the ink-sac and rectum is shown); r',r', two pyriform 
renal organs, or sacculated and glandular portions of the posterior venae-cavse, 
directly connected with r, r ; r, v c', lateral pallial veins, going to the dorsal sac- 
culated divisions of the vente-cav^ ; v c", v c" two posterior venae-cavaj, returning 
from the caudal fin and mantle; S, first stomach, or gizzard; S', large, saccular 
coecal appendao;e of tlie stomach ; fc, glandular, plicated division of the stomach ; t, 
spermary or testicle ; p r, prostate gland, with the vesiculre-serainales and sperraa- 
tophore-sac; p, efferent sperm-duct or 'penis'; P, posterior portion of the pen. 

Figure 2. — The same. Dorsal view of the reproductive organs, part of the renal 
organs, heart, etc., dissected out. The lettering is as in figure 1, with the follow- 
ing additions : v d, vas-deferens, closely folded upon itself ; s s, spermatophore- 
sac ; p 0, genital artery ; g o, spermatic artery and vein ; S", commencement of 
intestine : j) f, part of peritoneal membrane. 

Figure 3. — Loligo Pealei. Female in the breeding season. Oviduct, filled with ova, 
dissected out. Ventral view, about ^ natural size ; v o, commencement of convo- 
luted, thin membranous portion of oviduct ; o d, entrance to glandular portion ; 
d\ glandular portion of oviduct, surrounded by the large, laminated gland, x', 
the arterial vessels of which have been injected; op, orifice of the oviduct. 

Figure 3a. — The same specimen, seen from the dorsal side. 

Figures 4a, 46. — Loligo Pealei. Male. Side and front views of horny rim of one of 
the marginal suckers of the tentacular club, enlarged 10 diameters. 

Figure 5. — The same. Portion of tlie rim and marginal denticles of one of tlie large 
median suckers of the tentacular club, much enlarged. 
Figures 3, 3a are by the author ; the others by J. H. Emertou, from alcoholic speci- 
mens. 

Plate XLI. 

Figure 1. — Loligo Pealei, var. horealis. Female, in the breeding season. Ventral 
view, about |- natural size. The mantle has been cut open nearly in the median 
fine and the peritoneal membrane partly removed. The lettering is the same as 



442 A. E. Verrill — North American CephalopocU. 

in fig. 1 of PI. XL, with the following additions : 1, 2, 3, 4, first, second, third 
and fourth pairs of sessile arms : t a, tentacular arms ; d', external orifice of si- 
phon ; V, v', ovary, mostlj' concealed by the oviduct; v o, commencement of 
glandular portion of oviduct ; x', large gland surrounding the oviduct ; o d', ante- 
rior portion of oviduct; o^;, orifice of oviduct; xx, pair of large, ventral, lami- 
nated, nidamental glands ; x, pair of folUculated and mottled accessory nida- 
mental glands; u, one of the urethral openings of the peritoneal membrane. 
Figure 2. — Loligo Fealei. Embryo taken from the egg, ventral view, much enlarged ; 
a, a, a, ventral arms, tentacular arms, and third pairs of sessile arms; c, c, eyes 
on stout peduncles or lobes from the sides of the head ; m, mantle-edge ; h, 
branchial auricles ; y, unabsorbed yolk-mass. 
Figure 3. — The same. An embryo, within the egg, somewhat more advanced than 
fig. 2, side view, less enlarged. The lettering is as in fig. 2, with the following 
additions: a', second pair of arms; a", third pair; a'", tentacular arms; a'"'', 
ventral arms ; s, orifice of siphon ; o, otolith ; /, rudiraentaiy caudal fins. Chro- 
matophores are developed on the mantle. 
Figure 4. — The same. An embryo at the period of hatching. Ventral view, en- 
larged about 25 diameters. The yolk-snc is nearly absorbed. 
Figure 5. — The same. A somewhat older larva, taken swimming at the surface. Dor- 
sal view, enlarged about 7 diameters. The dorsal arms are still very small ; the 
tentacular arms are the large-t; the chromatophores are large and symmetrically 
arranged, but only part of them are figured ; the caudal fins do not reach the 
posterior end. 
Figures 2 and 3 are from camera-lucida drawings of living specimens by the author ; 
4 is by J. H. Blake from life ; 1 and 5 are by J. H. Emerton, from alcoholic speci- 
mens. 

Plates XLII, XLIII, and XLIV. 

These relate to the next article, which see. 

Plate XLV". 

Figure 1. — Lestoteuthis Fabricii Verrill. Young. Pen, enlarged two diameters- 
Copied from G. 0. Sars. 

Figure la. — The same. Part of odoatophore. Copied from G. 0. Sars. 

Figure \h. — The same. Portion of tentacular club, front view, enlarged. Copied 
from G. 0. Sars. 

Figure 2. — The same. Young. General figure, dorsal view, enlarged two diameters. 
From an American example. 

Figures 2a, 26. — The same. Front and side views of one of the suckers from the outer 
rows of a lateral arm of the same specimen. 

Figures 2c, 2c?. — The same. Front and side views of a hook-sucker from the median 
rows of the same arm. 

Figure 3. — Loligo Pealei. Young female. Dorsal view of a specimen taken at New- 
port, R. I , in August. Enlarged two diameters. From a fresh specimen. 

Figure 4. — The same. Young, just hatched. Ventral view, seen as a transparent object 
from a specimen raised from the eggs, at Newport, R. I., August 5th. Much en- 
larged ; a", a'", a"", three of the pairs of arms, showing the suckers on a'", the 
tentacular arms ; o!, the beak ; Z, odontophore ; e, the eye ; /, caudal fin ; ^, 
gill ; ^, ventricle of the heart ; //, //, branchial auricles : i. ink-bag ; m, man- 
tle; 0, otoliths; s, siphon; s', base of siphon; t, end of intestine; «, stomach; 
y, portion of yolk-sac, not yet absorbed. 



A. E. Verrill — JVort/i Ai/tericau Cephalopods. 443 

Figure 5. — Sfhenoteuthis megaptera V. Beak and inner buccal membrane, front view, 

natural size. 
Figure 5a. — Tlie same. Large sucker from the tentacular arm of the same specimen, 

front view, enlarged two diameters. 

Plate XLVl. 

Figure I . — Calliteuthis reversa Verrill. Female. Ventral view, natural size. 

Figure la. — The same. Beak, buccal membranes and base of arms, front view, 
natural size. 

Figure lb. — The same. One of the larger suckers from a lateral arm, enlarged. 

Figure 2. — Heteroteuthis tenera Verrill. Dorsal view of female, enlarged two diameters. 

Figure 2a. — The same. Tentacular club, enlarged four diameters. 

Figure 2b. — The same. Pen, enlarged four diameters. 

Figure 2c. — The same. Jaws, side view, enlarged four diameters; a, superior; b, in- 
ferior mandible. 

Figure 2d. — The same. Part of the odontophore. much enlarged. 

Figure 3. — The same. Front view of male, enlarged two diameters. 

Figures 3a, 3b. — The same. Front and side-views of one of the suckers of the 
lateral arms of the same specimen. 

Figure 4. — Rossia sublevis Verrill. Pen from ? (see Plate 47, fig. 2), enlarged four 
diameters. 

Figures. — Rossia HyattiY exriW. Female. Suckers, enlarged fifteen diameters ; «, one 
of the largest from third pair of arms, side-view ; b, c, two forms of suck- 
ers from the tentacular club. 

Figure 6.— Rossia megaptera Verrill. Female. Suckers, enlarged fifteen diameters ; 
a, front view of one of the largest from third pair of arms ; b, c, d, three suck- 
ers from the tentacular club. 
Figures 5 and 6 are camera-lucida drawings by the author ; the rest are by J. H. 

Emerton. 

Plate XLVII. 

Figure 1. — Chiroteuthis lacertosa? A^'errill. One of the tentacular arms, outer side, 

natural size. 
Figure 1 a. — The same. Front view of club, enlarged two diameters. 
Figure 16. — The same. One of the suckers, enlarged. 
Figure 2. — Rossia sublevis, var. Verrill. Female. Dorsal view, natural size. 
Figure 2a. — The same. One of the suckers of the tentacular club, side-view, much 

enlarged. 
Figure 2b. — The same. Marginal scales on the edge of the sucker, more enlarged. 
Figure 3. — The same. One of the arms of the third pair, from another female 

example, enlarged two diameters. 
Figure 4. — The same. Corresponding arm of the male. 

Figure 5. — Heteroteuthis tenera Verrill. Dorsal view of male, enlarged two diameters. 
Figure 5a. — The same. One of the larger marginal suckers of the tentacular club ; 

front view, much enlarged. 
Figure 5&. — The same. Portion of the margin of the sucker, more enlarged; to show 

the scales. 

Plate XLVIII. 

Figure 1. — Mastigoteuthis Agassizii Verrill. Dorsal view, slightly enlarged. 
Trans. Conn. Acad., Vol. V. 53 December, 1881. 



444 A. E. Yerrill — North American Cephalopods. 

Plate XLIX. 

Figure 1. — Lestoteuthis Fabricii V. {Oheloteuthis 7'apax Verrill.) (Jlub of tentacular 
arm, front view, enlarged two diameters. The horny hooks are lost from the 
claws, a, a', a"; b, c, small lateral suckers ; d, d', small suckers of distal portion ; 
e, e', connective suckers and tubercles. 

Figure la. — The same. One of the suckers corresponding to col fig. 1, front view, 
much enlarged. 

Figure 16. — The same. A small sucker, corresponding to d of fig. 1. 

Figure Ic, Id. — The same. Front and side-views of one of the claws, with its 
enclosed horny hook or ' nail,' from the middle of a lateral arm, enlarged eight 
diameters. 

Figure le. — The same. Connective cartilage from base of siphon, front view, enlarged 
two diameters. 

Figure If. — The same. Beak and pharynx, side view, enlarged two diameters. 

Figure 2. — Mastigoteuthis Agassizii Verrill. Front view of the beak, buccal membranes 
(6, d), and bases of the arms ; enlarged two diameters. 

Figure 3rt. — The same. Side view of head, siphon, and anterior part of mantle, show- 
ing the cartilage (c), on the inner surface of the mantle, which interlocks with c' 
on the base of the siphon ; e, olfactory (?) papilla, near the ear ; j), an aquiferous 
pore (?) ; s, siphon; t «, base of tentacular arms; 1, 2, 3, 4, bases of correspond- 
ing pairs of arms. 

Figure 36. — The same. Pen, ventral view enlarged two diameters. 

Figure 3c. — The same pen. Side-view. 

Figure 3d — The same. Portion from near the end of one of the tentacular arms, en- 
larged sixteen diameters. 

Figure 3e. — The same. Suckers from the tentacular arm, much enlarged : a, side- 
view ; a' and a", nearly front views. 

Figure 3^. — The same. One of the suckers from tlie middle of a lateral arm, front 
view, much enlarged. 

Figure 4. — Octopus Bairdii Verrill. Portion of odontophore, much enlarged. 

Figure 4a. — The same. Jaws : s, superior ; «, inferior mandibles, enlarged two 

diameters. 

Plate L. 

Figure 1. — Alloposus mollis V. Young male. Side view, showing the sac containing 
the hectocotylized arm, cut open, so as to expose the partially developed arm. 
One-half natural size. 

Figure la. — The same. Hectocotylized arm removed from the sac, enlarged two 
diameters. 

Figure 2. — The same. Young female. Ventral view, one-half natural size. 

Figure 2a.— The same specimen. Dorsal view, one-half natural size. 

Plate LI. 

Figure 1. — Octopus Bairdii, var. Verrill. Side view of a young male, enlarged about 

two diameters. 
Figure la. — The same. Terminal appendage of the hectocotylized arm, enlarged 

eight diameters. 
Figure 2. — Octopus lentus Verrill. Side view of a male, enlarged about two diameters. 
Figure 3. — Alloposus mollis Verrill. Portion of an arm, with suckers, from near the 

base, natural size. 



A. E. Verrill — North Americdn. Cephalopods. 445 

Figure 4. — Alloposm mollis Verrill. Terminal portion of a mature, detaclied liecto- 
cotylized arm, natural size. 

Plate LIl. 
Figure 1. — Eledone verrucosa, Verrill. Side view of the male, natural size. 
Figure la. — The same. Distal portion of the hectocotylized arm, to edge of basal 
web, showing the terminal appendage and the lateral groove. 

Plate LIU. 
Figure 1. — -Eledone verrucosa, Verrill. Dorsal view of the male, natural size. 

Plate LIV. 

Yxgvive \.—Architeuthis princepsY. Side view. Restored mostly from No. 1.3. One- 
twenty-fourth natural size. 

Figure 2. — Sthenoteuthis pteropus V. Side view of the specimen from Bermuda. One- 
fourth natural size. 

Figure 2a. — Caudal fin of the same specimen. Dorsal view, one-fourth natural size. 

Figure 3. — Loiigo Fealei Les. Portion from the middle of the tentacular club of a 
specimen having unusually small tentacular suckers ; a, a', largest median 
suckers ; b, h', lateral suckers, enlarged 4 diameters. 

Figure i.—Stoloteuihis leucoptera V. Male. Second lateral arm, showing the greatly 
enlarged middle suckers, enlarged 4 diameters. 

Plate LV. 

Figure l.—Lestoteuthis Fabricii V. One of the tentacular arms; enlarged 2 diameters. 

Figure la. — The same. The larger claw. Side view. 

Figure 16. — The same. Lateral arm ; enlarged 2 diameters. 

Figures 16', 16". — The same. One of the hooks; enlarged 8 diameters. 

Figure Ic. — The same. Portion of ventral arm ; enlarged 2 diameters. 

Figure 1(^. — The same. Peii, ventral view ; natural size. 

Figure 2. — Desmoteuthis tenera V. General figure of male, dorsal view ; natural size. 

Figure 2a. — The same. Teeth of odontophore ; enlarged 22 diameters. 

Figure 26.— The same. One of the larger suckers of the lateral arms, front view; 

enlarged 8 diameters. 
Figure 2c. — The same sucker ; side view. 
Figure 2d. — Valve-like apparatus within base of siphon ; natural size ; S, orifice of 

siphon ; «i, median organ ; i\ lateral papilla, and i, medio-dorsal papilla ; n, n', 

lateral cushions. 
Figure 3. — BracMotetUhis Beanii Verrill. Dorsal view of the male ; natural size. 
Figure 3a. — The same. Pen, ventral view ; enlarged slightly. 
Figure 36. — The same. Teeth of the radula ; enlarged 22 diameters. 
Figure 4. — Desmoteuthis hyperborea. Side view of one of the large suckers of the 3d 

pair of arms, side view ; enlarged 8 diameters. 
Figure 4a. — The same. Peculiar organs on the interior of the medio-dorsal side of 

the base of the siphon ; enlarged 2 diameters ; i, median, i', lateral papillte. 
Figure 5. — Chiroteuthis lacertosa V. Young female. One of the suckers of the ten- 
tacular arms, front view ; enlarged 22 diameters. 
Figure 6. — Histioteuthis Collinsii. One of the larger suckers of the median rows of 

the tentacular club, side view ; enlarged 2 diameters. 
Figure 6a. — The same. Oue of the suckers of the sublateral rows of the tentacular club. 



446 A. M Verrill — North American Cephalopods. 

Plate LVI. 

Figure 1. — CMroteutMs lacertosa Verrill. Dorsal view of the male; three-quarters 

natural size; ta, stump of one of the tentacular arms, with a few of the sessile 

suckers remainiug. 
Figure la. — The same. Ventral view of the pen; enlarged 3 diameters. 
Figure l«'.--The same. Section of the anterior part of the pen ; la", section of the 

posterior part of the pen ; much enlarged. 
Figure 16.— The same. Connective cartilage of siphon; enlarged 3 diameters. 
Figure Ic. — The same. Lateral connective cartilage of mantle. 
Figures Id, \e. — The same. One of the larger suckers of the 3d pair of arms, front 

and side views ; enlarged 6 diameters. 
Figure 1/. — The same. Papilla from behind and below the eye ; enlarged 3 diameters. 
Figure 2. — Brachioteuthis Beanii V. Connective cartilage of the mantle ; enlarged. 
Figure 2a. — The same. Lateral connective cartilage of the siphon ; enlarged. 
Figure 3. — Desmoteuthis tenera V. Tentacular arm ; enlarged 3 diameters. 



ERRATA. 

Pages 185, 206-208, correct description of pen, as on p. 395. 

Page 187, line 11, for M. Gabriel, read E. Gabriel. 

Page 190, line 32, for 2-5, read 3-5. 

Page 193, line 11, for 1878, read 1879. 

Page 213, line 11, for -22, read 22. 

Page 214, Une 25, and page 215, line 6 from bottom, for ventral, read lateral. 

Page 250, lines 22-25, omit the paragraph relating to Dosidicus ; line 29, for median 
hook read serrated ring; last line, for A. Kamschatica, read L. Kamtsckatica. 

Page 251, lines 18, 24, omit Dosidicus; lines 22, 25, for solid cartilaginous, read hol- 
low ; line 34, for Kamschatica, read KamtschaUca. 

Pages 268, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 289, 290, 293, for illecebrosa, read illecebrosus. 

Page 290, line 8 from bottom, for Gonatus Gray, read Gonatus G. 0. Sars, Steenst., 
non Gray ; omit quotation from Gray ; line 3 from bottom, after sessile arms, 
insert except the ventral, [see p. 388]. 

Page 291, line 12, for Verrill, read Steenstrup; lines 17-22, omit references to Moller, 
Gray, Tryon ; line 7 from bottom, after developed, insert (except on those of the 
ventral). 

Pace 292 line 26, and p. 293, line 1, for Chiloteuthis, read Cheloteuthis (=Lestoieuthis), 

[see p. 387]. 
Page 299, line 1, for Bonplandi D'Orb , read lacertosa ? Verrill, and omit syonymy. 
Page 305, line 10 from bottom, for posterior, read terminal. 
Page 3H8, Une 26, for anterio-, read antero-. 

Page 347, for Septola, read Stoloteuthis ; omit references to Leach, Gray, [see p. 417]. 
Page 379, line 4, for 3a, read 4. 
Page 385, line 23, for Oversight, read Oversigt. 



Trans Conn. ^cad. Vol V 



PLATE XXVr. 




J H Ekrierton. -from natixre. 



Photo LitJi-PimclersoT) iiCrisa-ndTfewifaverL.Ct. 



ARCHITEUTHTS HARVEYI VERTULL 



Trans Conn. Acad. Vol V 



PLATE XXVn. 




A.E .VerrilL 8. J H Emerton fconi natcrre. 



Photo LTthlPundEraoTi &Crrsa-nd H'ewlfaven.Ct. 



■mONlUS HYPERBOREUS ST., HISTIOTEUTHIS COLLINSII V. etc. 



Trans Conn. Acad. Vol V 



PLATE xxvnr. 




J H Emertxja -from nature 



Photo LrthP-unaerson 8cCrisa'ni2TewTIaveTl.,Ct. 

OMMASTREPHES ILLECEBROSA VERRTLL . 



Ti-ana Conr.._Acad Vbl.V 



PLATE 2X]X. 




J H Etaertcn from nature 



LOnGO PBALEI LES. AND OMMASTREPHES ILLECEBROSA V. 



Trans. Copn, jAicad. Vol V 



PLATE XXX 




J fL Einsrtoii from nature. 



PKot-o LithTunaeraon &Cr[SnT.a'!'IewTfaven.,Ct 



Trans Conn -Acai. Vol V 



piATE xxxr 




JH-Emerton ftom nature. 



Photo LithJunaeraon&CTtsa-ndliTrvv/Katvea.Ct. 



Trans. ConTL. Acad Vol V 



PLATE XKXri 




A EVeTTiIl fPOTa nature - Photo LithJlinHjeraonS-rrrsa-nAUew'H'averL.Ct. 

3TAUROTEUTHrS SYRTENSIS VERRLLL 



TpaTis Conn, Ac ai VoIV 



PLATE XXXm. 




J-H Em.ertoii itom nature. 



PKoto lith-PundersoTi ScCrtsand l^ew Haven, Ct, 



OCTOPUS BAIFJDir V..AND PAP^ASIRA CATENULATA ST. 



Trans. Conn. Acad., V. 



Plate XXXIV. 




J. H. Enierton and A. E. Verrill, from nature. 



Tpans Conn. Acad. Vol. V 



PLATE XXXV: 




J H Emsrtcn from, nature. 



PTioto LitKPun4er3oji-&Crcsa'nd T^ew Tfa-.-en Ct 



OCTOPUS LEisTTUS VERPJLL 



Trans. Corai. Acai.VolV 



PLATE XXXVE. 




AS .Verrill & J H Emertxin from nature. 



Photo l-rthPuna.9rsanaGrisaTiii'J^ew Haven, Ct. 



OCTOPUS PTSCATOPJJM VERRILL etc 



Trans. Conn, Aaad "vol V 



PLATE XXXVn. 




A.E .Verrill & JH Einerton from. nature 



PKoto Lithpimderaon fiiCrisaTid. Uev/ Haven. Ct. 



Trarg ConR. Acad. Vol V 



PLATE XXXVJir 




J 1[ Emertcn itoni nature. 



PTioto, Lith PundersojiiCnsand Me^v Haven, Ot 



ROSSIA MEGAPTERAy 2 OMM/^TREPHES, 3-6 ARCHTTEUTmS, 
8 OCTOPUS BAIRDU Y. 



Trans. Conn. Acad. Vol V" 



PLAVE XKXLX 




J II.EIn:i.erLon "from natxire. 



Fl-i oto LitKPunderscmACrisana WewHaven , Cl 



LOLIGO PEALEI LES., TAONIUS HYFERBOREUS ST, 
OMMASTREPHES ILLECEBROSA V. 



'Iran 3 .'^Mu-i Acad .Vol V 



PLATE XL 




A,E .Verrill a. J f [ ElraerLoTi from natxcre. 



Plioto. LithPimdersan6.Crisand NewHaven Ct 



LOLIGO PEALEl LES. 



Trans. Conn. Acad., V. 



Plate XLl. 




J. H. Emerton and A. E. Vi'rrill, from nature. 

Loligo Pealei Les. 



Tran_3 Conn Acad.Vcl V 



PLATE' XLV 




J H .EiTLertcR -deL Fho^o LithPi-naeiS-i6.CnE--incl Ne^rHax/en Ct 

GONATUS FABRICn.LOLIGO PEALEI, 3THENOTELTTHIS MEGAPTERA. 



Trans Conn Acad. Vol V 



PLATE y.Lxn 







brr._sr'LCTi froiii ii-iti 



PKoto LitKpLmderson&Crisand Newllaven Ct 



GALLITEUTHIS REVERSA. HETEROTEUTHIS TENERA 
R O 3 SIA_ SLTBLEVI3,etc. 



Trap.s. Cona AcaQ.Vol V 



PLATE 




J^ I'" .^ertxTiR ii-^m. natvre Photo L:f'-FunderscrL&Crisanrf Nf?'"' "Haven. Ct 

■CHIPOTELTTHIS BONPLAMDII. RCSSTA SUBLEVIS. HETERCTEU7H:S TEKERA.e- 



Tran s . Co n n Ac a d. , Vol V 



PLATE XLVIII 




;x t-rnsT-tori m.-n /iaa'r"; 



Trans. Conn. Acad. Vol. V. 



PLATE XLIX 




*"[ dne.'^o!! fron' naltne 



Pl\oto. LitXPur.dersOR&Crisand TfewHaveri.Ct. 



"'EUTH'S RAPAJr.MASTir :TEJTH' 
O C TOPU S B AIR D 1 1 . 



Trans, Conn, Acad. Vol V. 



PLATE L, 








J li Emerton, from naTure, 



Pl\ato Lith PunaersoTL&Crisand MewHaven.Ct 



ALLOPOSUS MOLl.IS.VERRTLL 



Trans Conn. Acad. Vcl V. 



PLATE LL 






\ 






y^^< 



^X 






.•? 



^.1 

^^^N 



"^^w^'a. 



3«isv^s«5 



€■' 






^ 



■^ 



J Ji. bK.er-ton irarr. riaiure. Fuj-idcrsoji^xCnsand New Haven Ol 

OCTOFUS BAIRDIl , OCTOFlTS LENTIJS, ALLOPOSUS MOLLIS. 



-ans. ConrL, Acad. Vol V. 



PLATE LII. 



A^" 






:%* 






&^ 




!"■-&, 



M 






i-^sr^^'l."- f ^ ^X, 




'^t^mr. 




.:#5^' 



^-CiiSS' 



J H Emertxjn from natitre. 



runden^anaLnsandlile'v' Haven, Ct 



ELEDONE VERRUGOSA. 



Trano. Conn, Acad. Vol, V 



PLATE LI 1 1. 



V 



ft 
m 



va 



tK: 






I .^ < 






>&/ 
^-^'f 



- ^ ^ L^ 





\ 



% 




^<^^^^^^fWw<iM^'K^ 






J TL Emerton -from nature. 



ELEDOKE VERRUCOSA. 



. Conn A'-ad 'A.. 



_^PLATE ZIV 




ARCHITEUTHIS, STHENOTEUTHIS, etc. 



PKoto LiUtPundersrni&Oisana MevHavsn U 



Trans. Conn, Acad. Sci., Vol. V. 



Plate LV. 




Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., Vol. V. 



Plate LVI. 




,1. il. Eniri'UMi, tiuii